Colonial Encounters, 1750-1914

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A. The author describes his experience in postcolonial Kenya. 1. discovery of reluctance to teach Africans English 2. colonial concern to maintain distance between whites and blacks a. was a central feature of many colonial societies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries B. The British, French, Germans, Italians, Belgians, Portuguese, Russians, and Americans all had colonies. 1. colonial policy varied depending on time and country involved 2. the actions and reactions of the colonized people also shaped the colonial experience
II. A Second Wave of European Conquests A. The period 1750–1900 saw a second, distinct phase of European colonial conquest. 1. focused on Asia and Africa 2. several new players (Germany, Italy, Belgium, U.S., Japan) 3. was not demographically catastrophic like the first phase 4. was affected by the Industrial Revolution 5. in general, Europeans preferred informal control (e.g., Latin America, China, the Ottoman Empire) B. The establishment of the second-wave European empires was based on military force or the threat of using it. 1. original European military advantage lay in organization, drill, and command structure 2. over the nineteenth century, Europeans developed an enormous firepower advantage (repeating rifles and machine guns) 3. numerous wars of conquest: the Westerners almost always won C. Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways. 1. India and Indonesia: grew from interaction with European trading firms a. assisted by existence of many small

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