The partition of Africa also colloquially known as “The Scramble for Africa” was a process of invasion and occupation of African territory by European powers throughout the time period of 1881 and ended during World War I in 1914. There was a range of reactions on the part of Africans to colonial rule. Supporters of colonialism in Europe claimed that most Africans welcomed the idea of colonialism. Colonialism, they argued, brought the end of the slave trade within the territories of Central and East Africa and brought an end to warfare in various parts of West Africa. Although there is some validity to the claim that colonialism brought peace to certain areas within the continent, and that there were some Africans who were at the beginning grateful that the violence in their lands were put to an end, the historical evidence does not support the claim that there was widespread support for colonial rule. Indeed, there is also considerable evidence of strong resistance to colonial rule. African societies responded to the occupation of their native lands via European powers in different ways. The African resistance to colonialism was the inevitable result of the clash of cultures that arose as European settlers competed for territory with indigenous people and began to enforce sanctions intended to coerce the indigenous population to colonial administrative systems. As their traditional economic, social and political structures were demoralized, Africans had no choice but to retaliate in defense of their traditional way of life, often at great personal cost. The indigenous people did not passively accept European claims to rule over them. As European troops advanced on African territory, they met stiff resistance.
Resistance during the New Imperialism era was fluid and always changing. The African societies or leaders that right from the start of colonialism decided to fight Europeans were known as primary resistance. This type of resistance included
Bibliography: McCaskie, T., & Boahen, A. (1987). General History of Africa, VII: Africa under Colonial Domination, 1880-1935. Africa: Journal Of The International African Institute, 57(3), 121-125,127-129. doi:10.2307/1160731
Muimui, L. (2012). POLITICAL HISTORY OF BAROTSELAND. Barotseland.info. Retrieved 5 June 2015, from http://www.barotseland.info/POLITICAL_HISTORY_BAROTSELAND.html
Ranger, T. (1968). Connexions between ‘Primary Resistance’ Movements and Modern Mass Nationalism in East and Central Africa: II. J. Afr. Hist, 9(04), 631. doi:10.1017/s0021853700009087
Reid, R. (2009). A history of modern Africa. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.
Okoth, A. (2006). African societies and the establishment of colonial rule (p. 158). Nairobi [u.a.]: East African Educational Publ.
History.state.gov,. (2009). Founding of Liberia, 1847 - 1830–1860 - Milestones - Office of the Historian. Retrieved 9 June 2015, from https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/liberia