top-rated free essay

Cold War Revision Word

By Caitlinstarkey Jan 10, 2015 1400 Words
Cold War Revision

A war short of full scale war because of the development of the Atomic bomb.
1. Beliefs: Russia was a Communist country, ruled by a dictator who cared little about human rights.
America was a capitalist democracy, which valued freedom.
2. Aims: Stalin wanted reparations from Germany/ a buffer of friendly states. Britain and the USA [led by President Truman] wanted to help Germany recover/ to prevent large areas of Europe from coming under Communist control. 3. Resentment about history: The USSR did not trust Britain and the USA – They had tried to destroy the Russian Revolution in 1918/ Stalin thought they had not helped the USSR enough in WW2. Britain & USA did not trust USSR – Stalin had signed the Nazi-Soviet pact in 1939. 4. Events turned the mistrust into war: Yalta/ Potsdam/ Salami tactics/ Fulton/ Greece/ Truman Doctrine/ Marshall Plan/ Cominform/ Czechoslovakia

YALTA Conference (February 1945)
1. Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt agreed to Divide Germany into 4 zones (France, Britain, USA, USSR)/ to hold free elections in Eastern European countries./ to set up the United Nations./ to set up a government of Communists and non Communists in Poland. 2. On the surface, everything seemed friendly, but there was tension behind the scenes

POTSDAM Conference (July 1945)
1. At Potsdam the tensions surfaced.
2. Stalin, Truman and Atlee agreed to bring Nazi war criminals to trial/ divide Germany into 4 occupied zones. 3. There were disagreements over Soviet policy in Poland./ The size of German reparations.

SALAMI TACTICS (1945–48) ‘Slice-by-slice’, Stalin ensured all E Eur.countries had Communist govts 1. Albania (1945) – the Communists took power after the war without opposition 2. Bulgaria (1945) – the Communists executed the leaders of all the other parties. 3. Poland (1947) – the Communists forced the non-Communist leaders into exile. 4. Hungary (1947) – Russian troops stayed / Stalin allowed elections (non-communists won a big majority)/ Communists led by the pro-Russian Rakosi./ Rakosi demanded that groups which opposed him should be banned./ He got control of the police, and arrested his opponents./ He set up a secret police unit, the AVH. 5. Romania (1945–1947) – the Communists gradually took over control. 6. Czechoslovakia (1948) – the Communists banned all other parties/ killed their leaders. 7. East Germany (1949) – Russians turned their zone into German Democratic Republic.

EVENTS 1946–1948
1. Fulton speech (March 1946)
Churchill described the Soviet bloc as an ‘iron curtain’ – Stalin believed this was necessary to maintain the safety of the USSR. After Fulton, the Cold War worsened. Russia called the speech a declaration of war. 2. Greece (February 1947)

US supplied arms and money to defeat the Communists.
3. Truman Doctrine (March 1947) – The USA implemented a policy of ‘containment’ towards the USSR – to prevent Communism spreading any further. 4. Marshall Plan (June 1947) – Marshall believed poverty was a breeding ground for Communism. American introduced ‘Marshall Aid’ – $17 billion to get Europe’s economy going. 5. Cominform (October 1947) – Stalin forbade Communist countries to accept Marshall Aid. (October 1947) Cominform was set up to control all Communist countries in Europe. 6. Czechoslovakia (February 1948) – Communists took control Panicked the US Senate into granting Marshall Aid (31 March 1948)

1. Causes [CABAN]
Cold War was beginning to bite – created tension.
Aims – USA+UK wanted Germany to recover/ Stalin looting German industrial capacity. Bizonia – USA, UK, France merged zones – became more prosperous than the Soviet. American Aid – Marshall Aid was voted 31 March 1948.

New Currency –Britain and America introduced new currency – destabilised the East German economy. Stalin said that this was the cause of the blockade. 2. Events – (24 June 1948) – Stalin closed rail + road links to Berlin / Lasted 11 months/ Allies airlifted supplies to Berlin – 275,000 flights, 1.5m tons/ In winter, Berliners lived on dried eggs and potatoes/ 4 hours of electricity a day./ US had B29 bombers on standby./ (12 May 1949) – Stalin re-opened the borders. 3. Results [CENA]

Cold War got worse.
East/West Germany: German Democratic Republic/ Federal Republic of Germany. NATO and Warsaw Pact – NATO (1949) defensive alliance against USSR/ Warsaw Pact 1955 by Russia Arms Race. The USA and USSR competed for world domination.

KOREAN WAR (North Korea [Communist] invaded South Korea [Capitalist]) 1. Causes [DUCKS]
Domino theory – Truman thought that Far Eastern countries would fall like dominoes. China Communist (1949). Truman feared Japan would follow. Undermine Communism – The National Security Council recommended (NSC 68 – April 1950) abandoning containment to ‘roll back’ Communism. Cold War – America & Russia for world domination – Korea a ‘war at arm’s length’. Kim Il Sung – got Stalin’s and Mao tse Tung’s agreement to attack South Korea. Syngman Rhee (1950) – boasted he would attack North Korea – gave an excuse. 2. Events

By June 1950 – the NKPA captured most of South Korea from the ROKs. July 1950 – UN troops (Americans led by MacArthur), drove the Communists back to the Chinese border. October 1950 – China attacked/ drove the Americans back/ advanced into South Korea. March 1950 – American reinforcements drove back Chinese (200,000 dead). Truman told the troops to stop t the 38th parallel. Truman sacked MacArthur for criticising his orders. 1953 – Truce: America claimed successful containment.

KHRUSHCHEV succeeded Stalin.
1. It seemed he would bring a thaw in the Cold War – He advocated ‘Peaceful Coexistence’/ He met Western leaders at summit meetings/ He was friendly to Yugoslavia, telling Tito there were ‘different roads to Communism’/ He criticised Stalin, executed Beria, set free political prisoners and de-stalinised the eastern bloc countries. 2. In fact 1955–1963 was the time of greatest tension in the Cold War Khrushchev used Russian troops when countries tried to leave Russian control. By peaceful co-existence, Khrushchev meant ‘peaceful competition’ (He loved to argue (Kitchen debate with Nixon)/ He gave economic aid to countries like Afghanistan and Burma/ Space Race (1957: Sputnik. 1961: Yuri Gagarin orbits the earth)/ Arms Race (1953: Russia got the hydrogen bomb) Warsaw Pact (1955) – USSR/ Albania/ Bulgaria/ Czechoslovakia/ E Germany/ Hungary/ Poland/ Romania 3. In retaliation, in America McCarthy conducted a ‘witchhunt’ for Communists/ In 1955, NATO agreed to an army of 0.5 m men in W Germany/ rushed to put a man on the moon/ American U2 planes spied on Russia

Hungary (1956)
1. Causes:
Poverty – When most of Hungary’s food was sent to Russia Russian Control – The Hungarians were very patriotic/ They hated censorship, the AVH, and Russian control of education./ They hated having Russian troops stationed in Hungary Catholic Church – Communism tried to destroy religion, but Hungarians were Catholics Help from the West – The Hungarians thought Esienhower or UN would help. Destalinisation –Led to protests against Rakosi’s harsh government. Events (3 key dates)

23 October – Student riots – attcks on AVH and Russian troops 24 October – 3 November – Reforming government led by Imre Nagy (Democracy/ Freedom of speech/ Freedom of religion/ Aimed to withdraw from Warsaw Pact. 4 November – Soviets sent 1000 tanks to crush/ Western powers protested but didn’t want a war. 2. Results

Janos Kadar put in control of Hungary/ 4,000 Hungarians killed/ Nagy shot./ 200,000 Hungarians flee to West./ Many westerners leave the Communist party./ Russia stays in control in Eastern Europe./ Western leaders all the more determined to ‘contain’ communism.

U2 Crisis
1 May 1960 Soviets shot down American U2 spy plane over USSR, and captured pilot Gary Powers./ Americans had to admit he was a spy./ Khrushchev demanded apology + end to spy flights./ Eisenhower refused. Results

Khrushchev walks out of Paris summit (14 May 1960)/ Eisenhower’s planned visit to Russia cancelled/ Khrushchev demands US leaves West Berlin/ Americans came off badly – been caught lying- propaganda victory for USSR./ New American president Kennedy promises to get tough on Communism.

Berlin Wall
1. Causes
Growing tension (U2 crisis/ Kennedy finances anti-Communist forces in Laos and Vietnam) Refugees (West Berlin enjoyed much higher standard than East Berlin./ 1945 –1960 3 million people crossed the border – a propaganda point for the US – most were skilled workers) Sabotage –The Russians claimed that America used West Berlin for spies and sabotage in east Germany.. 2. Events

13 August 1961– East Germans erected a barbed wire wall overnight (later stone)/ All East – West movement was stopped./ Wall fortified with barbed wire and guns./Western powers could do nothing.

Cuban Missile Crisis
1. Causes
Superpower tension – U2 – Berlin Wall – Laos – Vietnam Fidel Castro’s Cuba – only 90 miles off coast of America./ Close relationship with USSR (oil, machinery and money in return for sugar)/ Cuba nationalises American companies Bay of Pigs – (April 1961) America sent in rebels in but they were defeated (a humiliation). Missile bases – 14 October 1962: USA U2 spy planes photographs Soviet missile sites on Cuba. 2. Events

Kennedy ordered a naval blockade and threatened invasion.
For 10 days the world was on the brink of nuclear war.
Kennedy promised to remove US missiles from Turkey
28 October Khrushchev removed the missiles and the crisis was over 3. ResultsKhrushchev seemed to have failed
Kennedy became the hero of the Western world
Telephone hot line set up between Moscow and Washington.
(1963) – Nuclear test ban treaty signed.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Cold War

    ...Ngoc Chau Unit 3 Cold War 1) The dispute that became known as the Cold War emerged over the division of Europe after WW2 was inevitable because of conflicting interests and mistrust – who would control post –war Europe. - U.S/ United Kingdom position: the U.S and Great Britain argued for national self- determination through fr...

    Read More
  • Cold War

    ...start of the Cold War, the USA or the USSR? There were many countries involved in the Cold War. However the two main superpowers of the Cold War were the USA and the USSR each of which deserve a large amount of the blame for the starting of the Cold War. Nevertheless, I feel that the USSR should receive most of the blame due to their very...

    Read More
  • The Cold War

    ...The Cold War Germany was defeated after World War II and then we had to know how to care for them and rebuild a stable society for the defeated country or the Germans would be angry and will rise against. Germany was divided among 3 powers and after the war where Germany and also Japan had been defeated where they would occupy or settle w...

    Read More
  • the cold war

    ...Chapter 8: From a World War to a Cold War (Contains Cuban Missile Crisis) Why did Cold War break out? This portion of the content deals with the reasons for the outbreak of the Cold War between the USA and the USSR Competing Ideologies: The Cold War confrontation between the USA and the USSR was a clash between the opposing ideologies...

    Read More
  • Cold War Dbq

    ...end, a new conflict emerged between the United States and the Soviet Union. This conflict was the Cold War, and it affected many regions of the world, including Europe, Asia and Latin America. One example of how the Cold War affected a region was in Europe where it was divided into two regions; communist and non-communist.(doc 1) This seemed to ...

    Read More
  • History Notes on Cold War

    ...repeat the TOV. 3. Truman agreed to recognize the Polish government, 1945: 6th August - the atomic bomb in Nagasaki and Hiroshima Stalin was angry that Truman had not told him at Potsdam about the atom bomb (Trust issue) 1949 USSR developed atomic bomb  meant nuclear war, could be nuclear destruction, series of tense confrontations. M...

    Read More
  • Cold War/Yalta

    ...Yalta Conference 1945 meeting between Big Three to determine post-war status of Germany and rest of world, but mostly Germany, resulted in division of Germany among them. Creation of UN to replace League of Nations. USSR promises to join war in pacific after Germany falls Harry S. Truman. President 45-53. Decisions made during his administrat...

    Read More
  • The Cold War and Us Diplomacy

    ...The Cold World and U.S. Diplomacy The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy On April 12, 1945, Harry S. Truman, the Vice President of the United States, was elevated by the sudden death of Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Presidency of the United States. During Harry S. Truman’s time in the Presidential office he faced many obstacles, yet formed many do...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.