Top-Rated Free Essay

Cold War

Topics: Cold War, Soviet Union, World War II / Pages: 33 (8136 words) / Published: Dec 1st, 2012
The Cold War

In this module you will learn:
1. FOUR causes of the Cold War [BARE].
2. NINE events which caused the Cold War.
3. FOUR decisions made at the Yalta Conference.
4. TWO decisions and three disagreements at the Potsdam conference.
5. The ‘salami tactics’ that brought Communists to power in Eastern Europe
6. FIVE causes [CABAN] and FOUR results [CENA] of the Berlin crisis, 1948–9.
7. FIVE ‘Berlin Airlift Facts’.
8. FOUR causes of the Korean War [CJD-Kim].
9. FIVE phases of the Korean War, 1950–53.
10. FOUR ways Khrushchev brought a ‘thaw’ in the Cold War.
11. THREE ways ‘peaceful co-existence’ worsened the Cold War.
12. EIGHT countries in the Warsaw Pact.
13. FIVE crises after 1955.
14. FIVE causes, the events and FOUR results of the Hungarian uprising
15. THREE reasons tension grew after 1957.
16. The events and FOUR results of the U2 crisis.
17. THREE causes, the events and FOUR results of the Berlin Wall
18. THREE causes, the events and FOUR results of the Cuban Missiles Crisis.

You might do the following written work:
( A paragraph on ‘What was the Cold War?’
( An essay: ‘Were the Yalta and Potsdam conferences different?’
( A spidergram of the factors bringing Communists to power in eastern Europe, 1945–48.
( An essay: ‘Why had the superpowers become suspicious of each other by March 1946, when Churchill made his Fulton speech?’
( Notes on events: ‘Truman Doctrine – Marshall Plan’. ← Written notes on the causes of the Berlin Blockade. ← A written description of the Berlin Crisis, Jan 1948–12 May 1949. ← A spidergram of why the Berlin blockade failed. ← Written notes on the causes of the Korean War.
( An essay on the events of the Korean War.
( Notes on how Khrushchev brought a thaw in the Cold War, and how he made it worse.
( An essay: ‘Did superpower relations improve after 1953?’
( Notes on the Polish Riots of 1956.
( A mini-essay: ‘Why was there a revolution in Hungary in 1956?’
( Notes on the events and results of the Hungarian Revolution. ← A mini-essay: ‘The events which led to the Berlin Wall 1958–61.’ ← Notes on the results of the Berlin Wall. ← A mini-essay: ‘Why was there a Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.’ ← Notes on the events and results of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Have you read:
( N deMarco and R Radway, The Twentieth Century, pages 184–191.
( T Rea and J Wright, International Relations, chapter 7.
( Christopher Culpin, Making History, pages 185–192.
( JF Aylett, The Cold War and After, pages 2–17.
( James Mason, Modern World History to GCSE, pages 56–77.
( Tony Howarth, Twentieth Century History, pages 235–244.

| New Words | |From Hot War to Cold War |
| | |During the Second World War, Britain and the USA were allies of the Soviet Union, |
|Allies: countries working together. | |fighting together against Germany. After the war, they became enemies. |
| | | |
|Communists: believe that industry | |[pic] |
|should be state-owned. | | |
| | |After Hiroshima, and particularly after 1949 when Russia developed the atomic bomb, |
|Soviet Union: the Union of Soviet | |politicians realised that another ‘hot war’ would kill all humankind – war would be |
|Socialist Republics – the USSR –– i.e.| |MAD (mutually assured destruction). |
|communist Russia. | | |
| | |So they stopped short of war – the ‘cold war’. They didn’t declare war. But they |
|Dictator: a ruler who has total power.| |did everything to oppose each other short of war. |
| | | |
|Stalin | |It was called the ‘cold war’. It lasted until 1989. |
| | | |
|Capitalists: believe that property and| | |
|industry should be privately owned. | | |
| | | |
|Democracy: where the people can elect | | |
|their own government. | | |
| | | |
|Truman | | |
| | | |
|Churchill | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
|Tasks | | |
|Write a paragraph to explain the | | |
|meaning of the term ‘Cold War’. | | |
| | | |

|Causes of the Cold War | |Source B: |
| | |Events which caused the Cold War |
|1 Beliefs | | |
|The Soviet Union was a Communist country, ruled by a dictator, who cared little about| |Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) |
|human rights. | |Potsdam Conference (Jul 1945) |
|The USA was a capitalist democracy which valued freedom. | |Salami tactics (1945–48) |
| | |Fulton Speech (Mar 1946) |
|Aims | |Greece (Feb 1947) |
|Stalin wanted huge reparations from Germany, and a ‘buffer’ of friendly states to | |Truman Doctrine (Mar 1947) |
|protect the USSR from being invaded again. | |Marshall Plan (Jun 1947) |
|Britain and the USA wanted to protect democracy, and help Germany to recover. They | |Cominform (Oct 1947) |
|were worried that large areas of eastern Europe were falling under Soviet control. | |Czechoslovakia (Feb 1948) |
| | | |
|Resentment about History | | |
|The Soviet Union could not forget that in 1918 Britain and the USA had tried to | | |
|destroy the Russian Revolution. Stalin also thought that they had not given him | | |
|enough help in the Second World War. | | |
|Britain and the USA could not forget that Stalin had signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact with| | |
|Germany in 1939. | | |
| | | |
|Events | | |
|Neither side trusted each other. Every action they took (see Source B) made them | |Tasks |
|hate each other more. | |Write a paragraph to explain the meaning|
| | |of the term ‘Cold War’. |
| | |Copy, then learn the five causes and |
|Who Caused the Cold War? | |nine events which caused the Cold War, |
|Russian historians blamed Churchill (the British Prime Minister) and Truman (the | |so that you know them ‘off by heart’. |
|American president, 1945–1953). They said Truman and Churchill wanted to destroy | |For each of the five causes, explain how|
|the USSR, which was just defending itself. | |it might have caused relations between |
|At first, western writers blamed the Soviet Union. They said Stalin was trying to | |the USA and the USSR to become tense. |
|build up a Soviet empire. Later, however, some western historians blamed the USA. | |Working in twos, one pupil plays the |
|They said Truman had not understood how much Russia had suffered in the Second World | |part of a Russian historian, the other a|
|War. | |western writer of the 1950s. |
|Nowadays, historians think BOTH sides were to blame – that there were hatreds on both| |Talk about causes 1–4, the ‘Russian |
|sides. | |historian’ arguing that the Cold War was|
| | |America’s fault, and the ‘western |
|Source A | |writer’ saying that it was Russia’s. |
|It is useless to try to discover who made the first move to break the alliance. It | | |
|is impossible to trace the first ‘broken promise’. | | |
| | | |
|Written by the historian Isaac Deutscher, Stalin (1969). | | |
|[pic] | |Did you know? |
| | |Churchill was so worried about Soviet |
| | |domination of eastern Europe that he |
|The Big Three during the War | |tried to get the British armies to |
|During the War, Britain and the USA were allies of the Soviet Union, but the only | |advance faster. In 1944, he dropped |
|thing that united them was their hatred of Germany. | |British paratroopers behind enemy |
|In 1945, the Big Three held two conferences – at Yalta (February) and Potsdam (July) | |lines at Arnhem – but they were cut |
|– to try to sort out how they would organise the world after the war. It was at | |off and defeated by the Germans. |
|these conferences that the tensions between the two sides became obvious. | |This story was told in the film, A |
| | |Bridge Too Far. |
|Yalta (Feb 1945) | | |
|On the surface, the Yalta conference seemed successful. | |( Source A |
|The Allies agreed: | |The arrows show the Allied armies |
|Russia would join the United Nations. | |advancing into Germany in 1945 – the |
|divide Germany into four ‘zones’, which Britain, France, the USA and the USSR would | |British and Americans from the west, |
|occupy after the war. | |the Russians from the east. Notice |
|bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. | |the large areas of eastern Europe |
|set up a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity 'pledged to the holding of | |which fell under the control of |
|free and unfettered elections as soon as possible'. | |Russia. |
|help the freed peoples of Europe set up democratic and self-governing countries by | | |
|helping them to (a) maintain law and order; (b) carry out emergency relief measures; | |[pic] |
|(c) set up governments; and (d) hold elections (this was called the 'Declaration of | |( Source B |
|Liberated Europe'). | |A British cartoon of 1945. |
|set up a commission to look into reparations. | |Churchill, Roosevelt (USA) and Stalin |
| | |are shown as doctors, working together|
|But, behind the scenes, tension was growing. After the conference, Churchill wrote | |to heal the world. Look at the faces|
|to Roosevelt that ‘The Soviet union has become a danger to the free world.’ | |of the ‘Big Three’; what do you |
| | |notice? |
|Tasks | | |
|Source B shows the ‘Big Three’ smiling. Does this prove that Britain, Russia and | |Tasks |
|America were friends? | |Describe the events and decisions of |
|Write two reports of the Yalta Conference: one for the British newspapers, the other | |the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. |
|for the British government. | |Were they different? |
| | |Using page 5, especially Sources D and|
| | |E, explain why Potsdam was less |
| | |successful than Yalta. |
|Source D | |( Source C |
|The Russians only understand one | |The thief labelled ‘Russia’ is caught stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. |
|language - ‘how many armies have you | |‘It’s alright – he’s with me’, Stalin assures Roosevelt, who meekly answers: ‘Oh, |
|got?’ I’m tired of babying the | |OK’. |
|Soviets. | | |
| | | |
|President Truman, writing in January | |Potsdam (July 1945) |
|1946 | |At Potsdam, the Allies decided the post-war peace – Potsdam was the Versailles of |
| | |World War II |
|Source E | | |
|What is surprising about the fact that| |America had a new president, Truman, who was determined to ‘get tough’ with the |
|the Soviet Union, worried about its | |Russians. Also, when he went to the Conference, Truman had just learned that |
|future safety, wants governments | |America had tested the first atomic bomb. It gave the Americans a huge military |
|friendly to it in Finland, Poland and | |advantage over everyone else. Moreover, in March 1945, Stalin had invited the |
|Romania? | |non-Communist Polish leaders to meet him, and arrested them. |
| | | So, at Potsdam, the arguments came out into the open. |
|Stalin, writing in March 1946 | | |
| | |The Conference agreed the following Protocols: |
| | |to set up the four ‘zones of occupation’ in Germany. The government and laws and |
|[pic] | |education ‘shall be controlled to eliminate Nazi and militarist doctrines and to make|
|A map of how Germany was divided into | |possible the development of democratic ideas. |
|zones. | |to bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. |
| | |to recognize the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity and hold 'free and |
|[pic] | |unfettered elections as soon as possible'. |
| | |Russia was allowed to take reparations from the Soviet Zone, and also 10% of the |
|A map of how Berlin was divided into | |industrial equipment of the western zones as reparations. America and Britain could|
|zones. | |take reparations from their zones if they wished. |
| | |But in fact the Allies had disagreed openly about: |
| | |1. the details of how to divide Germany. |
| | |2. the size of reparations Germany ought to pay. |
| | |3. Russian policy in eastern Europe. |
| | | |
| | |Source D |
| | |In this ‘marriage of convenience’, the thought that a divorce was inevitable had been|
| | |in the mind of each partner from the beginning. |
| | |Written by the historian Isaac Deutscher, Stalin (1969). |
| | | |
| | |Tasks |
| | |Looking at the information on this spread, when do YOU think the Cold War started? |
| | |Read Source F; when did Deutscher think it started? |
|Salami tactics: the Soviet take-over of eastern Europe |
|New Words | |Source A |
| | |Hungary was invaded by the Russians, and in 1945 the allies |
|sinister: frightening, in an evil way. | |agreed that Russian troops should stay there. Stalin |
| | |allowed elections, and the non-communists won a big |
|totalitarian: where the government has total power over the | |majority. However, some communists were elected, led by a |
|people. | |pro-Russian called Rakosi. |
| | |Rakosi now started demanding that groups which opposed him |
|imperialistic: wanting to build an empire. Communists used| |should be banned. If not, he hinted, the Russians would |
|it as an abuse-word to describe the western powers. | |take over the country. Then he got control of the police, |
| | |and started to arrest his opponents. He set up a sinister |
|During 1946–47, Stalin made sure that Communist governments | |and brutal secret police unit, the AVH. Soon Rakosi had |
|came to power in all the countries of eastern Europe (the | |complete control over Hungary. |
|countries which the Soviet Union had conquered in 1945). | |Rakosi’s work was typical of what was happening all over |
|The Communist description of this process was ‘slicing | |eastern Europe. |
|salami’ – gradually getting rid of all opposition, | | |
|bit-by-bit (see Source A). In this way, Russia gained | |The historian Jon Nichol, writing in 1990 |
|control of: | | |
| | | |
|Albania (1945) – the Communists took power after the war | |( Source B |
|without opposition | |Russia saw it as protecting herself from future attack. |
|Bulgaria (1945) – a left-wing coalition gained power in | |The West saw it as empire-building. |
|1945; the Communists then executed the leaders of all the | | |
|other parties. | | |
|Poland (1947) – a coalition government took power in 1945, | | |
|but the Communists forced the non-Communist leaders into | | |
|exile. | | |
|Hungary (1947) – see Source A. | | |
|Romania (1945–1947) – a left-wing coalition was elected in | | |
|1945; the Communists gradually took over control. | | |
|Czechoslovakia (1945–48) – a left-wing coalition was elected| | |
|in 1945. In 1948, the Communists banned all other parties | | |
|and killed their leaders. | | |
|East Germany (1949) – the Russian turned their zone of | | |
|Germany into the German Democratic republic in 1949. | | |
| | | |
|Tasks | | |
|Read Source A, and make a spidergram showing all the factors| | |
|that helped Communists take power in the countries of | | |
|eastern Europe. | | |
|Explain how the case of Hungary on Source A illustrates | | |
|‘salami tactics’. | | |
| | | |
|Churchill’s Fulton Speech | |Source C |
| | |Mr Churchill has called for a war on the USSR. |
|On 5 March 1946, Winston Churchill gave a speech at Fulton | | |
|in America. He said ‘a shadow’ had fallen on eastern | |Stalin, writing in the Russian newspaper Pravda on 13 March |
|Europe, which was now cut off from the free world by ‘an | |1946. |
|iron curtain’. Behind that line, he said, the people of | | |
|eastern Europe were ‘subject to Soviet influence . . . | | |
|totalitarian control [and] police governments’. | |Source D |
| | |. . . the Cold War set in. Churchill had given his famous |
| | |speech in Fulton urging the imperialistic forces of the |
|[pic] | |world to fight the Soviet Union. Our relations with |
| | |England, France and the USA were ruined. |
| | | |
| | |Nikita Khrushchev, writing in 1971. In 1946 he was a |
| | |member of the Soviet government. |
| | | |
| | | |
| | |( Source E |
| | |A British cartoon of 1946. In fact, the ‘iron curtain’ was|
| | |a 2,000-kilometre line of barbed wire, look-out posts and |
| | |road blocks. |
| | | |
| | |Tasks |
| | |Read Sources C and D. Explain why Churchill’s speech was a|
| | |turning point in the history of the Cold War. |
| | |Did Churchill cause the Cold War? |

Essay!
[use this essay frame to write the following essay, using pages 2–6]
Why had the Superpowers become suspicious of each other by
March 1946, when Churchill made his important speech at Fulton?

They became suspicious of each other because they had different beliefs. The USA. . . . . . . . . . The USSR . . . . . . . . . . This caused suspicion because . . . . . . . . . .

History made the USA and the USSR suspicious of each other. The Soviet Union . . . . . . . . . . The USA . . . . . . . . . . This caused suspicion because . . . . . . . . . .

Both the USA and the USSR had very different aims. The USA . . . . . . . . . . The USSR, however, . . . . . . . . . . This caused suspicion because . . . . . . . . . .

Finally, because neither side trusted each other, events made them hate each other more. • The Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) caused problems because . . . . . . . . . . • The Potsdam Conference (Jul 1945) . . . . . . . . . . • Also, salami tactics (1945–48) caused suspicion because . . . . . . . . . .

|New Words | |Opinion: |
| | |Churchill’s speech did not start the Cold War, but he was |
|doctrine: a belief. | |the first person to stop pretending to be friends with |
| | |Russia. Thus, his Fulton speech was the start of the Cold |
|Congress: the American ‘parliament’. | |War; after it, America and Russia got into a number of |
| | |conflicts. |
|Czechoslovakia | | |
| | |Greece |
|aggressor: someone who starts a quarrel. | |By 1946, Greece and Czechoslovakia were the only countries |
| | |in eastern Europe that weren’t Communist. Even in Greece, |
|Containment: holding something in – stopping the USSR | |the government, which was being supported by British |
|growing. | |soldiers, was having to fight a civil war against the |
| | |Communists. |
| | |In February 1947, the British told Truman they could no |
|Source A | |longer afford to keep their soldiers in Greece. President |
|Every nation must choose between different ways of life . . | |Truman stepped in. The USA paid for the British soldiers in |
|. We must help free peoples to work out their own destiny | |Greece. |
|in their own way. | | |
| | |The Truman Doctrine |
|President Truman, speaking in March 1947. | |In the 1930s, Americans had kept out of Europe’s business. |
| | |Now, in March 1947, Truman told Americans that it was |
| | |America’s DUTY to interfere (Source A). His policy towards |
|Source B | |the Soviet Union was one of ‘containment’ – he did not try |
|This ‘American duty’ is just a smokescreen for a plan of | |to destroy the USSR, but he wanted to stop it growing any |
|expansion . . . They try to take control of Greece by | |more. This was called the ‘Truman Doctrine’. |
|shouting about ‘totalitarianism’ | | |
| | | |
|The Russian newspaper Izvestia, March 1947. | | |
|Source C ( |[pic] |
|This Russian cartoon shows| |
|the Greek government being| |
|‘helped’ by America. | |
|The Marshall Plan | |Source D |
|In June 1947, the American general George Marshall went to | |The ruling gang of American imperialists has taken the path |
|Europe. He said every country in Europe was so poor that it | |of open expansion, of enslaving weakened capitalist |
|was in danger of turning Communist! Europe was ‘a breeding | |countries. It has hatched new war plans against the Soviet |
|ground of hate’. He said that America should give $17 | |Union. Imitating Hitler, the new aggressors are using |
|billion of aid to get Europe’s economy going. | |blackmail. |
| | | |
|Cominform | |GM Malenkov, a Soviet politician, speaking in 1947. |
|The Soviet Union hated Marshall aid (see Sources D and E). | | |
|Stalin forbade Communist countries to ask for money. | |[pic] |
|Instead, in October 1947, he set up Cominform. Every | |( Source E |
|Communist party in Europe joined. It allowed Stalin control | |Communists in Germany oppose Marshall Aid. |
|of the Communists in Europe. | | |
| | | |
|Czechoslovakia | |[pic]( Source F |
|At first, the American Congress did not want to give the | |A British cartoon shows Truman and Stalin as two |
|money for Marshall Aid. But then, in February 1948, the | |taxi-drivers trying to get customers. |
|Communists took power in Czechoslovakia. | | |
|Congress was scared, and voted for Marshall Aid on 31 March | | |
|1948. | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
|Tasks | | |
|Using the dates in bold, make notes, in chronological order,| | |
|on the events from February 1947 to 31 March 1948. | | |
|Read Source A. Talk about the events in your list – as | | |
|though you were an American. | | |
|Now read Sources B–E. Describe the same events – as though | | |
|you were a Russian Communist | | |
|Did the Truman Doctrine cause the Cold War? | | |
|What was the first event of the Cold War? | | |
|Work out an argument that the creation of Cominform was the | | |
|first event of the Cold War. | | |
|The Berlin Blockade, 1948–49 | |New Words |
|The USSR had already disagreed with Britain and the USA at Potsdam (July 1945, see | | |
|page 5) about what should be done with Germany. Germany had been split into four | |Blockade: a siege. |
|zones. Berlin, in Russia’s zone, was also split into four zones. | | |
| | |Bizonia |
|What caused it? | | |
|Cold War | |Currency: money. |
|was just getting started (e.g. Czechoslovakia, March 1948) | | |
| | | |
|2. Aims | | |
|Stalin wanted to destroy Germany – Britain and the USA wanted to rebuild Germany. | | |
| | | |
|3. Bizonia | | |
|The Russians were taking German machinery back to the USSR. In January 1948, Britain | | |
|and the USA joined their two zones together to try to get German industry going. They| | |
|called the new zone Bi-zonia (‘two zones’). | | |
| | | |
|American Aid | | |
|Congress voted for Marshall Aid on 31 March 1948. Immediately, the Russians started | | |
|stopping and searching all road and rail traffic into Berlin. | | |
| | | |
|New Currency | | |
|On 1 June, America and France announced that they wanted to create the new country of| | |
|West Germany; and on 23 June they introduced a new currency into ‘Bizonia’ and | | |
|western Berlin. The next day the Russians stopped all road and rail traffic into | | |
|Berlin – Stalin was trying to force the USA out of Berlin. | | |
| | | |
|Source A | | |
|[The Americans had introduced a new currency into Berlin.] | | |
|Old money flooded into the Soviet Zone. Some restrictions were placed on links | | |
|between Berlin and western zones, but the Soviet side was ready to supply food to all| | |
|Berlin. | | |
|Yet every day 380 American planes flew into Berlin. It was simply a propaganda move | | |
|intended to make the cold war worse. | | |
| | | |
|From a Russian history book. | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
|Source B: | |What happened? |
|Airlift Facts | |The American Army wanted to fight its way into Berlin – that would have caused a war.|
|The blockade lasted 318 days (11 | |Instead, Truman decided to supply Berlin by air (see Source B) |
|months). | |The situation was bad at first, but things got better as the blockade went on. On 12 |
|In the winter of 1948–49 Berliners | |May 1949, Stalin re-opened the borders. |
|lived on dried potatoes, powdered eggs| | |
|and cans of meat. They had 4 hours of | | |
|electricity a day. | |What were the Results? |
|275,000 flights carried in 1½ million | |Cold War got worse |
|tons of supplies. A plane landed every| |It almost started an all-out war. |
|3 mins. | | |
|On 16 April 1949, 1400 flights brought| |2. East and West Germany |
|in 13,000 tons of supplies in one day | |Germany split up. In May 1949, America, Britain and France united their zones into |
|– Berlin only needed 6,000 tons a day | |the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). In October 1949, Stalin set up the |
|to survive. | |German Democratic Republic (East Germany) . |
|The USA stationed B-29 bombers (which | | |
|could carry an atomic bomb) in | |3. NATO and the Warsaw Pact |
|Britain. | |In 1949, the western Allies set up NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) as a |
| | |defensive alliance against Russia. NATO countries surrounded Russia; in 1955, the |
| | |Soviet Union set up the Warsaw Pact – an alliance of Communist states. |
| | | |
| | |Arms Race |
| | |After Berlin, the USA and the USSR realised that they were in a competition for world|
| | |domination. They began to build up their armies and weapons. |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | |Tasks |
| | |Copy the five causes of the Berlin Crisis. |
| | |The Berlin blockade and airlift was one of the first episodes of the Cold War. Write |
| | |an essay to describe what happened. |
| | |Start the story in Jan 1948, and finish it on 12 May 1949. |
| | |Working as a whole class, draw a spidergram to show all the reasons why the Berlin |
| | |blockade failed. |
|The Korean War, 1950–53 | |Did you know? |
|The Korean War was the time when the Cold War became a global conflict. | | |
| | |In 1945, Korea was freed from the |
| | |Japanese. The country was split in |
|What caused it? | |half at the 38th parallel. |
|President Truman was interested in the Far East: | | |
|Cold War: Truman realised the USA was in a competition for world domination with the | |North Korea |
|USSR. Europe was not the only place where Communists were coming to power. In the Far| |(led by Kim II Sung) was Communist. |
|East, too, they were getting powerful – China turned Communist in 1949. | |South Korea |
|Japan: Truman was worried that, in the end, the Communists would capture Japan. | |(led by Syngman Rhee) was capitalist. |
|Domino theory: Truman believed that, if one country fell to Communism, then other | | |
|would follow, like a line of dominoes. | |The two countries hated each other. |
| | | |
|Stalin, also, was involved in the Far East: | | |
|Kim II Sung visited Stalin. In 1949, he persuaded Stalin that he could conquer South | | |
|Korea. Stalin was worried that America would get involved, but he gave his agreement.| |Source B |
|Kim II Sung also went to see Mao Tse Tung, the leader of China, to get his agreement.| |Asia is where the communist |
| | |conspirators have decided to make |
| | |their play for global conquest. If we |
|In 1950, Syngman Rhee boasted that he was going to attack North Korea. It was a good | |lose this war, the fall of Europe is |
|enough excuse – the North Koreans invaded South Korea. | |inevitable. There is no choice but |
| | |victory. |
|This started the Korean War. | |The US General MacArthur, speaking in |
|The war had FIVE phases. | |1950. |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | |New Words |
| | | |
| | |global: whole world |
| | | |
| | |38th parallel: a line of latitude on |
| | |the map. |
| | | |
| | |Kim II Sung |
| | | |
| | |Syngman Rhee |
| | | |
| | |Mao Tse Tung |
The Events of the War, 1950–53

| |June 1950 |[pic] |
| |The North Koreans attacked. | |
|I |They were very successful. | |
| |They captured most of South Korea. | |
| | | |
| |July 1950 |[pic] |
| |The Americans were alarmed (see Source B). | |
|II |They persuaded the United Nations to support South Korea. | |
| |The American Army, led by General MacArthur, went to Korea, drove back the North | |
| |Koreans and recaptured South Korea. It invaded North Korea. | |
| |It advanced as far as the Chinese border. | |
| | | |
|I | | |
| |October 1950 |[pic] |
| |Now the Chinese were alarmed. | |
|III |They attacked MacArthur, and drove the Americans back. | |
| |They recaptured North Korea, and advanced into South Korea. | |
| |February 1951 |[pic] |
| |The Americans landed more troops. | |
|IV |They drove the Chinese back (the Chinese lost 200,000 men). | |
| |March 1951 – 1953 | |
| |MacArthur reached the 38th parallel in March 1951. | |
|V |Truman told MacArthur to stop. | |
| |MacArthur was sacked when he publicly criticised Truman’s order. | |
| |In 1953, Eisenhower became American president. He made peace. | |

Tasks

Look at Source B. Why was Korea so important for the Americans?

Write notes on the causes of the Korean War.

Write an essay to describe the main events of the Korean War, 1950–53.

Revision Questions

1. Who was Prime Minister of Britain in 1945?
2. Who was president of the USA in February 1945?
3. Who became president of the USA in 1945?
4. Who was leader of Russia in 1945?
5. What is a ‘cold war’?
6. List FOUR causes of the Cold War?
7. What do Communists believe?
8. The USA is a ‘capitalist democracy’. What do these words mean?
9. Name two historical complaints that Stalin had against Britain and the USA.
10. What could Britain and the USA not forgive Stalin for (from 1939)?
11. Give TWO things that Stalin wanted from the peace.
12. What worried Britain and the USA about Stalin’s plans?
13. When did Russia develop the atomic bomb?
14. List NINE events leading up to the Cold War, Feb 1945 to Mar 1948.
15. Give FOUR things agreed at Yalta.
16. Explain TWO reasons why the Potsdam Conference was less successful than Yalta.
17. Name THREE things that the ‘Big Three’ disagreed about at Potsdam.
18. What were ‘salami tactics’?
19. Was is ‘totalitarianism’?
20. Was does the word ‘imperialistic’ mean?
21. What was Churchill’s Fulton speech (5 March 1946) about?
22. Why did Britain keep soldiers in Greece after the Second World War had finished?
23. What happened when the British could no longer afford to keep soldiers in Greece?
24. What did the Truman Doctrine say?
25. Why did Marshall propose the Marshall Plan?
26. How much aid did the Marshall Plan want to send to Europe?
27. Which country turned Communist in March 1948?
28. What rival to Marshall Aid did Stalin set up in 1947?
29. Give FIVE causes of the Berlin blockade.
30. How long did the blockade last?
31. How did the US and Britain supply the Berliners?
32. List FOUR results of the blockade.
33. What rival alliance to NATO did the USSR set up in 1955?
34. Why was the Korean War important in the history of the Cold War?
35. Name the ruler of North Korea in 1950.
36. Name the ruler of South Korea in 1950.
37. List THREE reasons why Truman was interested in the Far East.
38. When did China turn Communist?
39. Whose agreement to invade South Korea did Kim II Sung seek?
40. What excuse did Kim II Sung have for attacking South Korea?
41. Who was winning the war at its start in June 1950?
42. Who led the UN forced which landed in July 1950?
43. Why did the Chinese enter the war?
44. How many Chinese soldiers died in the war?
45. Why was MacArthur sacked?

/75

|Q | |New Words |
|Imagine a class with a really tough and nasty teacher. After a while, that teacher | | |
|leaves, and a more gentle, reasonable teacher takes over. Will behaviour in the | |summit: meeting of the major world |
|class get better, or worse? | |powers. |
| | |destalinisation: dismantling Stalin’s |
| | |tyranny. |
|Stalin died in 1953. He was hated all over eastern Europe. When they heard he was| |Co-existence: living together. |
|dead, people in East Berlin rioted. | |capitalism: western system of a free |
|After a short struggle for power, Khrushchev became the new ruler in Russia. | |economy. |
| | |economic aid: money given to a country|
|Khrushchev | |to help build up its economy. |
|At first, the western powers hoped that Khrushchev would be the start of a ‘thaw’ in | | |
|the Cold War. | | |
| | |Did you know? |
|1. Khrushchev often met western leaders at ‘summit’ meetings. | | |
|2.. Stalin had made all Communist countries do what he wanted – and he had fallen out| |Even though he was a poorly-educated |
|with President Tito of Yugoslavia. But in 1955 Khrushchev went to Yugoslavia, | |peasant, Khrushchev had insight and a |
|telling Tito that ‘there are different roads to communism’. Western leaders thought| |good turn of phrase. He once said |
|he would no longer insist that all communist countries take orders from Russia. | |that Communism and capitalism would |
|3. In a speech in 1956, Khrushchev attacked Stalin, saying that Stalin was a murderer| |only agree ‘when shrimps learned to |
|and a tyrant. Khrushchev began to ‘de-stalinise’ Russia. Political prisoners were| |whistle’. |
|set free and Beria (Stalin’s Chief of Secret Police) was executed. | | |
|4. Khrushchev said that he wanted ‘peaceful | | |
|co-existence’ with the West. Western leaders hoped this meant the end of the Cold | |Source C |
|War. | |[pic]This Russian cartoon shows |
| | |Khrushchev destroying the Cold War. |
| | | |
|Source A | |Task |
|You do not like Communism. We do not like capitalism. There is only one way out –| |Make notes on the ways Khrushchev |
|peaceful co-existence. | |seemed to improve the Cold War. |
| | | |
|Khrushchev speaking on a visit to Britain in 1956. | |Source D |
| | |EIGHT Countries in the Warsaw Pact: |
| | |USSR |
|Source B | |Albania |
|We may argue. The main thing is to argue without using weapons. | |Bulgaria |
| | |Czechoslovakia |
|Khrushchev speaking in 1959. | |East Germany |
| | |Hungary |
|Peaceful Co-existence | |Poland |
| | |Romania. |
|If the rulers of the West hoped that there would be an end to the Cold War, they were| | |
|disappointed. | |Source E |
| | |Crises after 1955: |
|1. ‘De-stalinisation’ did not mean a change back to capitalism, or freedom from | |1956 Poland |
|Russia. When communist countries went too far in their reforms, Khrushchev sent in | |1956 Hungary |
|the Red Army to stop them. | |1960 U2 crisis |
| | |1961 The Berlin Wall |
|2. By ‘peaceful co-existence’, Khrushchev really meant ‘peaceful competition’. He | |1962 Cuban Missile Crisis |
|started to build up Russian power: | | |
|He visited countries like Afghanistan and Burma and gave them economic aid if they | | |
|would support Russia. | |Did you know? |
|Russia began the ‘space race’ with the America. In 1957 Russia launched Sputnik the| | |
|first satellite. In 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first astronaut to orbit the | |Khrushchev was NOT a gentle easy-going|
|earth. | |man; he had been Stalin’s right-hand |
|Russia began an ‘arms race’ with America. In 1953, Russia got the hydrogen bomb. | |man – |
|Khrushchev set up the Warsaw Pact – a military alliance of Communist countries – to | |Stalin had used him to run the terror |
|rival NATO. | |purges after World War II. Khrushchev|
| | |loved to argue. This often caused |
|3. Faced by this, America became just as aggressive: | |tension between leaders. |
|In America, Senator McCarty led a ‘witch-hunt’ for ‘Communists’ in America (e.g. | | |
|Charlie Chaplin was accused of being a Communist.) | |Task |
|America had an ‘arms race’ with Russia. In 1955, NATO agreed to a West German Army | |Make notes on the ways Khrushchev made|
|of ½ million men (this led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact). | |the Cold War worse. |
|The Americans used U2 planes to spy on Russia. | | |
| | | |
|As a result, the period 1955–1963 was the time of GREATEST tension in the Cold War. | | |
| | | |

|In 1956, Khrushchev faced crises in two countries which were destalinising. | |New Words |
| | | |
| | |patriotic: loving your country. |
| | |censorship: where the government |
|Poland | |controls what the newspapers/ radio |
|In Poland, a number of political prisoners were set free. At the same time, a bad | |etc. say. |
|harvest led to unrest. | |telex: an early form of fax, |
| | |connecting typewriters down a |
|Railway workers led a protest of people calling for ‘Cheap Bread’ and ‘Higher Wages’.| |telephone line. |
|When the police shot some of the marchers, there was a riot. Government officials | | |
|were killed. Mr Gomulka, (who had been in prison) took power. | | |
| | | |
|Khrushchev sent Russian troops into Poland to put down the rebels. But he left | | |
|Gomulka in power – Gomulka continued the process of destalinisation, but he kept | |Task |
|Poland loyal to Russia and the Warsaw Pact. | |Make notes on the ‘The Polish riots of|
| | |1956’. |
| | | |
| | | |
|Hungary – Causes | | |
|The basic cause of the Hungarian revolution was that the Hungarians hated Russian | | |
|communism: | | |
| | | |
|1. Poverty | | |
|Hungarians were poor, yet much of the food and industrial goods they produced was | | |
|sent to Russia. | | |
| | | |
|2. Russian Control | | |
|The Hungarians were very patriotic, and they hated Russian control – which included | | |
|censorship, the vicious secret police (AVH) and Russian control of what the schools | | |
|taught. | | |
| | | |
|3. Catholic Church | | |
|The Hungarians were religious, but the Communist Party had banned religion, and put | | |
|the leader of the Catholic Church in prison. | | |
| | |Task |
|4. Help from the West | |Prepare a 15-minute essay: ‘Why was |
|Hungarians thought that the United Nations or the new US president, Eisenhower, would| |there a revolution in Hungary in |
|help them. | |1956’. |
| | | |
|5. Destalinisation | |Source A |
|When the Communist Party tried to destalinise Hungary, things got out of control. | |There were FIVE reasons why Khrushchev|
|The Hungarian leader Rakosi asked for permission to arrest 400 trouble-makers, but | |acted harshly in Hungary: |
|Khrushchev would not let him. | |Nagy’s decision to leave the Warsaw |
| | |Pact was the last straw – Russia was |
| | |determined to keep its ‘buffer’ of |
|Hungary – Events | |states. |
|On 23 October, there were riots of students, workers and soldiers. They smashed up | |China asked Russia to act to stop |
|the statue of Stalin, and attacked the AVH and Russian soldiers. | |Communism being damaged. |
| | |Nagy had obviously lost control; |
|On 24 October, Imre Nagy took over as Prime Minister. He asked Khrushchev to take | |Hungary was not destalinising – it was|
|out the Russian troops. | |turning capitalist. |
| | |Hard-liners in Russia forced |
|On 28 October, Khrushchev agreed, and the Russian army pulled out of Budapest. | |Khrushchev to act. |
| | |Khrushchev though, correctly, that the|
|29 October – 3 November: The new Hungarian government introduced democracy, freedom| |West would not help Hungary. |
|of speech, and freedom of religion (the leader of the Catholic Church was freed from | | |
|prison). He also announced that Hungary was going to leave the Warsaw Pact. | | |
| | |Source B |
|4 November: At dawn, 1000 Russian tanks rolled into Budapest. By 8.10 am they | |TWO reasons why the West did not help |
|had destroyed the Hungarian army and captured Hungarian Radio – its last words | |Hungary: |
|broadcast were ‘Help! Help! Help”!’ Hungarian people – even children – fought | |Britain and France were involved in |
|them with machine guns. 27,000 people were killed. | |the Suez crisis in Egypt. |
|Khrushchev put in Janos Kadar, a supporter of Russia, as Prime Minister. | |Eisenhower did not think Hungary worth|
| | |a world war. |
| | |When the UN suggested an |
|Source C | |investigation, Russia used its veto to|
|We are quiet, not afraid. Send the news to the world and say it should condemn the | |stop it. |
|Russians. The fighting is very close now and we haven’t enough guns. What is the | | |
|United Nations doing? Give us a little help. We will hold out to our last drop of| |Did you know? |
|blood. The tanks are firing now. . . | | |
| | |What made the Hungarian revolution so |
|The last message – a telex from a newspaper journalist – from Hungary. | |heart-rending was the desperate |
| | |bravery of the rebels. One |
| | |journalist found a little girl of 12, |
|Hungary – Results | |dead, armed with a machine gun. |
|1. 200,000 Hungarian refugees fled into Austria. | | |
|2. Russia stayed in control behind the Iron Curtain – no other country tried to get | |Tasks |
|rid of Russia troops until Czechoslovakia in 1968. | |1. Copy out sources A and B and the |
|3. People in the West were horrified – many British Communists left the Communist | |section: Hungary – Results. |
|Party. | |2. Prepare a 15-minute essay: ‘The |
|4. The West realised it could do nothing about the Iron Curtain countries – but this | |events of the Hungarian Revolution’. |
|made Western leaders more determined to ‘contain’ communism. | | |
|After 1957, tension grew between Russia and America: | |Did you know? |
|1. Russia’s Sputnik satellite (1957) and space orbit (1961) gave them a psychological| | |
|advantage. Many Americans believed America was in danger. | |When Khrushchev visited America in |
|2. In 1959, the Communist Fidel Castro took power in Cuba, right next to America. | |1959, he was taken round an Ideal Home|
|In 1960, he made a trade agreement with Russia. | |exhibition. At the kitchen display, |
|3. China was very aggressive. When Khrushchev made a visit to America in 1959, they| |he had a very public row with American|
|accused him of going soft; this made Khrushchev demand that America withdraw from | |Vice-President Nixon about which was |
|West Berlin | |better: Communism or capitalism. |
|A summit was planned for May 1960 to discuss Berlin and nuclear weapons. | | |
| | | |
|The U2 crisis | | |
|On 5 May 1960 – just 9 days before the summit – Russia shot down an American U2 | | |
|spy-plane. | | |
|At first, the Americans tried to claim that it was a weather-plane that had gone | | |
|off-course. However, the Russians put the pilot Gary Powers on trial for spying, | | |
|and the Americans admitted it was a spy-plane. | | |
| | | |
|The summit met at Paris on 14 May 1960. | | |
|Khrushchev refused to take part in the talks unless the Americans apologise and | | |
|cancel all future spy-flights. President Eisenhower agreed to cancel the | | |
|spy-flights, but would not apologise – so Khrushchev went home. | | |
| | | |
|The results were: | | |
|1. Paris summit ruined; Cold War continues. | | |
|2. Eisenhower’s planned visit to Russia cancelled. | |Tasks |
|3. Khrushcev and the Russians grew in confidence. | |1. Discuss with a friend why the U2 |
|4. Americans became angry with Eisenhower, who they said was losing the Cold War. | |incident came at a very bad time for |
|After the U2 incident, America became more aggressive. They elected John F Kennedy,| |the Americans. |
|who promised to be much tougher on communism. | |2. Make notes on: ‘The story of the |
| | |U2 crisis’. |
|Source A | | |
|Let every nation know that we shall pay any price, bear and burden, meet any | |New Words |
|hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, for the survival and success of | | |
|freedom. Now the trumpet calls again . . . against the enemies of man: tyranny, | |psychological: in the mind. |
|poverty, disease and war. Ask not what your country can do for you: ask what you | |Nuclear weapons: atomic and hydrogen |
|can do for your country. | |bombs and ICBMs – inter-continental |
| | |ballistic missiles. |
|Inaugural speech of President Kennedy, 1961. | |Sabotage: causing damage |
| | | |
|The Berlin Wall – Causes | |Source B |
| | |The Americans use West Berlin as a |
|1. Growing tension | |base for recruiting spies, sabotage |
|Kennedy tried to get tough on Communism. | |and starting riots. The wall will |
|He financed the forces fighting the Communists in Vietnam and Laos, and in 1961 he | |keep East Germany safe. |
|helped an invasion of Cuba (see page 8). | | |
| | |The Russian explanation of the Wall, |
|2. Refugees | |1961 |
|East Germany was poor and under strict rule. | | |
|West Berlin was wealthy and free. Many East Germans worked in West Berlin, and saw | |Source C |
|this. | |There were FOUR results of the Berlin |
|By 1961, 3 million had fled to the west through Berlin. As the Cold War tension | |Wall: |
|grew, more left, fearing that the border would be closed – by August 1961, the flow | |Berlin was split in two. Hundreds of|
|was 1,800 a day. | |East Berliners died trying to cross |
|This was an embarrassment to Russia, which claimed that Communism was better. | |it. |
|Also, many who left were skilled workers. | |America complained, but did not try to|
| | |take it down – it was not worth a war.|
|3. Sabotage | |Tension grew: both sides started |
|The Russians claimed that the Americans used West Berlin for spying and sabotage (see| |nuclear testing. |
|Source B). | |The West became more anti-communist |
| | |(Source D) |
| | | |
|The Berlin Wall | |Source D |
|At the Vienna summit of June 1961, Khrushchev again demanded that the Americans leave| |Some people say we can work with the |
|West Berlin. Kennedy’s refused – and on 25 July increased America’s spending on | |Communists. Let them come to Berlin.|
|weapons. | | |
| | |President Kennedy, 1961. |
|On 13 August, Khrushchev closed the border between east and west Berlin – and built a| | |
|wall. | | |
| | |( The Berlin Wall, 1961 |
| | | |
| | | |
|[pic] | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | |Tasks |
| | |1. Prepare a 15-minute essay: |
| | |‘Describe the events 1958–1961 which |
| | |led to the Berlin Wall’. |
| | |2. Copy Source C. |
|The Cuban Missiles Crisis – Causes | |New Words |
| | | |
|1. Superpower Tension | |nationalise: where the government |
|All the tensions that had grown up between Russia’s assertive ‘peaceful competition’ | |takes over a business/ industry. |
|and Kennedy’s promise to be tough on Russia – including the space race, the arms race| |naval blockade: to not allow ships to |
|and nuclear testing, American funding of anti-Communists in Vietnam and Laos, the | |come or go from Cuba. |
|failed Vienna summit (1961) and the Berlin Wall. | | |
|2. Fidel Castro’s Cuba | | |
|In 1959, the Communist Fidel Castro took power in Cuba. This was very threatening | | |
|to the USA because it was right next to America. In 1960, Castro made a trade | | |
|agreement with Russia, whereby Cuba sent sugar to Russia, in return for oil, machines| | |
|and money. This frightened the Americans more, and in 1960 they stopped trading | | |
|with Cuba. In retaliation, Cuba nationalised all American-owned companies | |Source A |
|3. The Bay of Pigs. | |We will not needlessly risk world-wide|
|In April 1961 the CIA encouraged, funded and transported an attempt by anti-Castro | |nuclear war in which even victory |
|Cuban exiles to invade Cuba. It failed miserably, greatly embarrassing Kennedy. | |would be ashes in our mouths – but |
|In September 1961, therefore, Castro asked for – and Russia publicly promised – | |neither will we shrink from that risk |
|weapons to defend Cuba against America. | |when it must be faced . . . I call |
| | |upon Chairman Khrushchev to stop and |
|On 14 October an American U2 spy-plane took pictures of a nuclear missile base being | |dismantle this secret, reckless and |
|built on Cuba. Kennedy’s advisers told him he had 10 days before Cuba could fire | |provocative threat to world peace. |
|the missiles at targets in America. | | |
| | |Speech by President Kennedy on |
|Kennedy decided he had to act (see Source A). | |American TV, 1962. |
| | | |
|[pic] | |( The danger of the missile bases. |
| | | |
|The Cuban Missiles Crisis | | |
| | |Task |
|16 Oct: Kennedy set up a Committee of the National Security Council to advise him.| |Prepare a 15-minute essay: ‘Why was |
|22 Oct: Kennedy announced that he was mounting a naval blockade of Cuba. | |there a crisis about Cuba in 1962? |
|23 Oct: Khrushchev accused America of piracy. He warned that Russia would get ready| | |
|‘a fitting reply to the aggressor’. 20 Russian ships were heading for Cuba. | |Source B |
|24 Oct: The first Russian ship reached the naval blockade. It was an oil ship and | |Kennedy’s Options: |
|was allowed through. The other Russian ships (carrying missiles) turned back. | |Nuclear Strike? It would cause a |
|However, Russia was still building the missile bases. | |nuclear war. |
|26 Oct: Khrushchev sent a letter to Kennedy, offering to dismantle the sites if | |Conventional attack? There were |
|Kennedy would lift the blockade and agree not to invade Cuba. | |Russian troops in Cuba, and it would |
|27 Oct: Before Kennedy could reply, Khrushchev sent another letter, demanding that | |probably lead to a war with Russia. |
|Kennedy also dismantle American missile bases in Turkey. On the same day, a U2 | |Use the UN? Too slow. |
|plane was shot down over Cuba. | |Do nothing? The missile bases were |
|It looked as if war was about to happen. | |too dangerous. |
|Kennedy ignored the plane incident. He also ignored Khrushchev’s second letter – he| |Blockade? This would stop the |
|wrote simply that would lift the blockade and agree not to invade Cuba if Khrushchev | |missiles getting to the missile bases,|
|would dismantle the missile bases. | |but it was not a direct act of war. |
|28 Oct: Khrushchev agreed. The crisis finished. | | |
|20 Nov: Russian bombers left Cuba, and Kennedy lifted the naval blockade. | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | |Did you know? |
|The results were: | | |
|1. Khrushchev lost prestige – he had failed. Particularly, China broke from Russia.| |Kennedy did not publicly agree to |
|2. Kennedy gained prestige. He was seen as the men who faced down the Russians. | |dismantle missile bases in Turkey. |
|3. Both sides had had a fright. They were more careful in future. The two leaders| |But in a secret telephone call, he |
|set up a telephone ‘hotline’ to talk directly in a crisis. | |told Khrushchev that – while he |
|In 1963, they agreed a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Cuba was the start of the end of | |couldn’t agree to dismantle Turkish |
|the Cold War. | |bases in a ‘tit-for-tat’ agreement – |
|4. Cuba remained a Communist dictatorship, but America left it alone. | |the USA did not see any need for them |
| | |and that they would be dismantled |
| | |soon. |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | |Tasks |
| | |1. Prepare a 15-minute essay: |
| | |‘Describe the events of the Cuba |
| | |Crisis of 1962. |
| | |2. Copy ‘The Results of the Cuba |
| | |Crisis’. |

Revision Questions

1. When did Stalin die? Who became the new leader of Russia 2. What were the meetings between the superpower leaders called? 3. What did Khrushchev tell Tito in 1955? 4. What did Khrushchev say about Stalin in 1956? 5. What was Khrushchev’s policy called? What did he really mean by it? 6. What was de-stalinisation? Why was it dangerous for world peace? 7. How did Khrushchev build up support in countries like Afghanistan and Burma? 8. What was the first satellite and when was it launched? 9. Who was the first astronaut to orbit the earth, and when did he do it? 10. When did Russia get the hydrogen bomb? 11. What was the military alliance set up by Khrushchev, and what countries were in it? 12. Which American senator led a ‘witch-hunt’ for communists in America? 13. What did NATO agree to in 1955 in West Germany? 14. How did America spy on Russia? 15. Name the FIVE crises after 1955. 16. Who led the Polish riots of 1956? 17. Which Polish Communist kept control of Poland? 18. List the FIVE reasons for the Hungarian uprising. 19. Who rioted in Hungary on 23 October 1956, and what did they do? 20. Who became the Prime Minister of Hungary? 21. What FOUR reforms did the rebels order? 22. What FIVE reasons led Russia to send in the tanks? Of these, which was most important? 23. How many tanks invaded Budapest. 24. Why did Britain and France not help Hungary? 25. Who was the President of America in 1956? Why did he not help Hungary? 26. Why did the UN not help Hungary? 27. Who did Khrushchev put in charge of Hungary? 28. How many Hungarians fled to Austria? 29. What did Khrushchev demand from America in 1959? 30. With whom did Khrushchev argue about kitchens in 1959? 31. What crisis began on 5 May 1960. 32. Which summit meeting was ruined because of the crisis? 33. Who did the Americans elect as their President in 1961? 34. Which two places in the Far East did Kennedy finance anti-communist fighters? 35. How many refugees had fled to West Berlin by 1961? Why was this bad for Russia? 36. What did Khrushchev demand at the Vienna summit of June 1961? 37. What date did Khrushchev begin to build the Berlin Wall? 38. Why did Khrushchev say he built the wall? 39. When did Fidel Castro come to power in Cuba? 40. What did his 1960 trade agreement with Russia say? 41. What did Castro do to America companies in 1961 which angered America? 42. What was the name for the failed invasion of Cuba in 1961. Why was it an embarrassment for Kennedy? 43. What did a U2 spy-plane discover on Cuba in October 1962? 44. What were Kennedy’s FIVE options, and which did he choose? 45. What did Khrushchev accuse America of? 46. What deal was done between Kennedy and Khrushchev? 47. What event during the crisis (27 Oct) almost caused a nuclear war? 48. What did the two leaders set up after the Missiles Crisis to prevent another such crisis? 49. What agreement began the thaw in 1963?

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Cold War
  • The Cold War
  • Cold War
  • Cold War
  • Cold War
  • cold war
  • Cold War
  • Cold War
  • Cold war
  • Cold War