I would like to present my paper on Cognitive theory and use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Bipolar Disorder. The project will show efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral therapy in treating Depression. Cognitive theory was originated by Aaron Temkin Beck (b.1921) .A.T. Beck`s Pioneering research established efficacy of cognitive therapy for depression. He has successfully applied cognitive therapy to depression, generalised anxiety and panic disorders, marital and relationship problems, psychotic disorders and personality disorders. (Corey, G., 2013).He has developed assessment scales for depression, suicide risk, anxiety, self-concept, and personality. Cognitive behavioral therapy and its efficacy in Bipolar disorder and Depression is the topic of the paper. Cognitive Theory:
Becks cognitive triad:
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:
A.T. Beck developed an approach known as Cognitive Therapy (CT) as a result of research on Depression. Beck`s observations of depressed clients revealed that they had a negative bias in Their interpretation of certain life events, which contributed to their cognitive Distortions (Beck, 1967).
Basic principles of cognitive Therapy:
Beck contends that people with emotional difficulties tend to commit characteristic
Logical errors that distort objective reality. Systemic errors in reasoning that lead to faulty assumptions and misconceptions, which are termed cognitive distortions. Arbitrary inferences, selective abstraction, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization, labeling and mislabelling, dichotomous thinking are the examples of cognitive distortions. Application of Cognitive therapy :Almost everyone has dark thoughts when his or her mood is bad. With depression, though, the thoughts can be extremely negative. They can also take over and distort your view of reality. Cognitive therapy can be an effective way to defuse those thoughts. When used for depression, cognitive therapy provides a mental tool kit that can be used to challenge negative thoughts. Over the long term, cognitive therapy for depression can change the way a depressed person sees the world. Depression poses many dangers, burdening people with hopelessness and raising their risk of suicide. But in attempts to quell the pain, some turn to alcohol, drugs, and other harmful behaviors that endanger them even further, psychologists say. “There is a strong relationship between depression and high-risk behaviors,” says Pamela Cantor, PhD, a psychologist and lecturer at Harvard Medical School. “Excessive drinking, drug abuse, unsafe sex, and cutting are all self-injurious behaviors that... Studies have shown that cognitive therapy works at least as well as antidepressants in helping people with mild to moderate depression. Treatment with medication and/or psychotherapy can shorten depression's course and can help reduce symptoms such as fatigue and poor self-esteem that accompany depression. Read on to see how cognitive therapy or talk therapy might help you start thinking and feeling better if you are depressed. Cognitive Therapy for Depression: A Thinking Problem
Cognitive therapy was developed in the 1960s as an alternative way to treat depression, says Judith S. Beck, PhD. Beck is director of the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research located outside Philadelphia. She tells WebMD that the principle underlying cognitive therapy is "thoughts influence moods." According to cognitive therapists, depression is maintained by constant negative thoughts. These thoughts are known as automatic thoughts. That means they occur without a conscious effort. For example, a depressed person might have automatic thoughts like these: "I always fail at everything."
"I'm the world's worst mother."
"I am doomed to be unhappy."
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Beck says automatic thoughts "may have a grain of truth. But," she adds, "the depressed person distorts or exaggerates the reality of the...
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