cognitive strategies

Topics: Educational psychology, Concept, Short-term memory Pages: 18 (1707 words) Published: February 27, 2014
An Introduction to
Cognitive and Instructional
Learning Strategies
Supports EDU622:
Applying Learning Theories

Table of Contents

Cognitive Learning Strategies
• Organizing Strategies
• Chunking
• Spatial Strategies
• Frames
• Concept mapping
• Bridging Strategies
• Advance Organizer
• Metaphor, analogy, simile
Instructional Strategies
• Rehearsal
• Imagery
• Mnemonics
• Role Playing
• Guided Discussion
• Simulation
• Brainstorming
• Case Studies
• Drill & Practice

What are Cognitive
Learning Strategies?

Cognitive learning strategies are methods used to help
learners link new information to prior knowledge in
facilitating the transfer of learning
• Focuses on how the learner processes the
• Provides a structure for learning when a task cannot
be completed through a series of steps
• Supports the learner as s/he develops internal
procedures that enable him/her to perform tasks
that are complex, and can increase the efficiency
with which the learner approaches a learning task

What are Cognitive
Learning Strategies?

Cognitive learning strategies are mental strategies
which occur in the minds of people
• Learning these strategies are aided by their
incorporation into instruction
• The utility of cognitive learning strategies can
be employed by instructional designers to
facilitate the activation and retention of prior
knowledge by integrating active and
exploratory learning techniques into the design

Types of Cognitive
Learning Strategies

Some cognitive learning strategies can be represented
based on the information presented, and are used as
tools to construct knowledge in new concepts
Representative models include:
• Organizing
• Spatial
• Bridging
• General purpose strategies

Organizing Strategies
Organizing strategies are not memorable strategies in that
they must be supplemented by more powerful strategies,
such as framing or concept mapping. However, chunking
strategies are good preparation for other strategies.


Organization of information into meaningful units
Makes it easier to use, store, and recall information
Multiple chunks of information can be linked together
Helps in overcoming working memory limitations

I need to
create a
What must
I do?

Spatial Strategies
Spatial strategies are an array of information organized by
location in space and time. They assist in the recall of
concrete arrays of information by using visual displays
(grids, matrix, framework) of substantial amounts of
information, and provides a big picture by which learners
can use to assimilate information.

Frames: Type 1

Visual display of substantial amounts of
Framework for representing knowledge
Allows text easier to understand
Knowledge organized around the
representation in frames

Allows a uniform representation of knowledge
Main ideas are represented as slots of some
concept that describes properties of that concept

Frames: Type 1 Example
Types of








Frames: Type 2

Matrices or grids allow for organizing
large numbers of facts, concepts or ideas
Driven by a general principle or
Elicits personal knowledge from memory
Relationships are recognized and
understood by logical inference

Type 2 Frames: Implications

Allows students to elaborate and enrich
complex information
Allows for active learning
Provides for schema activation
Improves comprehension
Allows for deeper levels of processing

Type 2 Frames: Uses

May be used in all phases of courses, units or
Powerful beginning by providing the big
picture or spatial learning strategy.
Helps students infer and recall prior learning
Guide to note taking, study, discussions,
review and...
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