Cognitive Perspective on the Cause of Depression
Jasmine Elyse Fore
Developing a Psychological Perspective
Depression is a common mental health disorder, according to the Centers for Disease Control (2011) depression affects 1 in 10 Americans in the U.S. alone. Depression does not know race, ethnicity, age or gender. “The cognitive perspective on the cause of depression believes that depression can be caused by faulty thinking, low-self-esteem, a negative outlook on life, or influenced on ones gender, race, socioeconomic status, levels of social support, and stress or other environmental events” (Capella University, 2013). Cognitive relates to conscious intellectual activity such as thinking, reasoning, and remembering (Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2013). Early life trauma, stress and how it affects the genes and the environment all fall under the umbrella of the cognitive perspective. They can all play a role on the cause of depression. This paper will discuss how early life trauma can predict depression as well as effect genes that cause depression, and will also discuss how a neighborhood can influence depression.
Early Life Trauma and Depression.
Any person experiencing trauma in their life can have a difficult time managing through it. Those who experience early life trauma can have it possibly lead to depression. “Early life trauma is generally referred to as the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. These traumas are situations that threaten the safety of the child or their caregiver. Which can include intentional violence, the result of a natural disaster, accidents, or war. Young children also may experience traumatic stress in response to painful medical procedures or the sudden loss of a parent/caregiver” (The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, n.d.). “When children experience negative events in life they try to the cause of the event so that they can attach some type of meaning to the negative event” (Ingram, 2003). When negative situations occur some children tend to see themselves as the cause of these negative events, which effect a child’s self-perception of themselves (Ingram, 2003). Persistent negative events will cause the way they perceive themselves to continue to be negative. This is the beginning of hopelessness, and hopelessness leads to depression (Ingram, 2003). Young children do not always know how to always correctly express themselves, they also may not always understand what is happening to them or the people they love. This can result in situations causing some sort of trauma or stress in their life. Early life trauma is also considered early life stress, and early life stress can affect your genes. The biochemical perspective on the cause of depression also deals with the genes and how they affect depression.
The Biological Perspective on the Cause of Depression
The biological perspective suggests that a persons’ genetic makeup or hormones can cause depression. “The biological perspective suggests that depression is a result of family history (that is, a genetic link), a chemical imbalance in the brain (for example, depletion of the neurotransmitter serotonin), a specific medical condition (for example, underactive thyroid) or even increased levels of hormones (for example, cortisol – stress hormone)”(Capella University, 2013). According to Dr. Daniel Pine (2009), hormones can have some effect on emotions, anxiety, and depression. Hormones are influences, hormones themselves don’t cause depression but hormones in addition to stressful environments or family history can cause depression.
Early Life Stress and Genes
Stress can affect more than a persons’ mood or health, some studies show that stress can affect the genes as well. Early stress as commonly been associated with the early onset of depression. When someone experiences stress early in life there can be a mutation in the Serotonin...
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