Topics: Morphine, Opioid, Drug addiction Pages: 3 (882 words) Published: December 15, 2012
Codeine is derived from the opium flower and is included in the drug class opiates. Codeine occurs as colorless or white crystals or as a white, crystalline powder; the drug is slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. Codeine phosphate occurs as fine, white, needle-shaped crystals or as a white, crystalline powder and is freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Codeine sulphate occurs as white needle shaped crystals, or as a white, crystalline powder and is soluble in water and very slightly soluble in alcohol. Codeine was first discovered as a natural constituent of opium in very small concentrations. Because of the small concentration found in nature, most codeine found in medical products is synthesized from morphine. This is why codeine can easily be converted to morphine (Codeine FAQ). Codeine's common medical uses include relief of mild to moderate pain including: back pain, bone pain, migraine, and surgical pain.

Codeine can be taken orally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, and rectally. Codeine can not be administered safely by an intravenous injection because it may result in pulmonary adema, facial swelling, dangerous release of histamines, and various cardiovascular effects (Codeine). Effects of codeine start after 10-30 minutes after ingestion, peak within 1 to 2 hours and may last 4 to 6 hours, depending on dose administered.

Suppression of the sensation of and emotional response to pain, euphoria, drowsiness, lethargy, relaxation, dizziness, difficulty in concentrating, decreased physical activity in some users and increased physical activity in others, mild anxiety or fear, nervousness or restlessness, pupillary constriction (pinpoint pupils), confusion, blurred vision, impaired night vision, hallucinations (e.g. 'corner-eye' hallucinations, seeing 'spiders' and 'bugs'), suppression of cough reflex (Codeine). Dry mouth, allergic reaction (difficulty breathing, closing of throat, swelling of lips, tongue or...
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