Contents Background 2 Production Process 3 Heap Method 4 Box Method 4 Quality 4 Mode of Transport 5 Uses of Cocoa 6 Primary Use of Cocoa 6 Secondary Use 6 Possible Substitute 6 Demand 7 Changes in cocoa production 10 Implications of shortage 11 Supply 12 Strategy to reduce cost and/or assure supply 18 Works Cited 23
Background Cocoa beans are seeds of the cacao tree, which is a member of the Sterculiaceae family. Contained in a cucumber like fruit; these yellowish, reddish to brownish fruits are divided into five compartments each containing up to 10 seeds (Service). As the fruit begins to ripen, the partitions break down and the seeds are found around the central funicle in a whitish pulp. The cocoa seed (i.e. bean) consists of the seed coat which contains the cocoa kernel. The cocoa kernel is the principal component for the production of cocoa products. There are about 20 known varieties of the Cacao plant, but only two are commonly used in producing cocoa products (Canizaro). The two varieties commonly used are: * High Grade or Criollo Cocoa; which are large, roundish and brown in color. They have a delicately bitter, aromatic flavor and are easily processed. * Common Grade or Forastero Cocoa; which are small, flattened on the side and have a dark reddish-brown to violet color. They have a sharper flavor and account for nearly 90% of the world’s cocoa harvest.
The main areas of cultivation of the cacao tree falls within a narrow belt 10° north and south of the equator because the trees grow well in humid tropical climates with consistent rainfall and a short dry season (Cadbury). Cocoa trees need an even temperature between 21 to 23 degrees centigrade, with a rainfall of 1,000 to 2,500 mm per year to produce cocoa seeds. The main producers of cocoa are: * West Africa Region—Ghana, Nigeria and Cote D’Ivoire. * South America Region—Brazil and Ecuador. * Asia—Malaysia and
Cited: Cadbury. Cocoa and Chocolate. 2012. 26 October 2012 <http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treesandmarkets/inaforesta/documents/cocoa%20and%20chocolate/cocoa%20and%20chocolate.pdf>. Canizaro, Mark. All About Chocolate. 2002. 26 October 2012 <http://www.xocoatl.org/variety.htm>. Service, Transport Information. Cocoa Beans. 2012. 26 10 2012 <http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/ware/genuss/kakao/kakao.htm>.