-what can be done to protect our health and environment
Coal Seam gas
Coal seam gas extraction has been shown to be a very destructive process. Evidence pointing towards the method of fracking providing strong link to have caused polluted water ways, deadly toxins released in to the atmosphere, causing large cracks under the earths surfaces which after years can results in sink holes, these are all major issues that have affected the lives of many Australians some farmers even forced off their own land to make room for coal seam gas miners What is coal seam gas?
Coal seam gas (CSG), also known as coal bed methane, is a form of natural gas typically found at depths of 300-1000 metres extracted from coal seams. CSG is a mixture of many gases but is generally made up of 95% pure methane. Coal seams store both gas and water, the water is always under pressure from the rock material above which holds the gas in place. (ntn.org.au, Dr M, Lloyd-Smith. 19/05/14) The process of extraction is when the water pressure is reduced and the gas is released this is done by drilling a well in to a coal seam and the water is gradually pumped out of the seam, this allows the gas to flow freely to the surface of the well. Hydraulic Fracturing is used to open up cracks in the seam to create a path for the water to flow back to the surface, they do this by pumping fluid under high pressure in to the seam, the seam the fluid is a mixture of sand, water and minor additives. This process depressurise the coal seam allowing the gas in the pours of the coal to be released and flow to surface. Both the water and gas are then pumped out of the well separated, the water is disposed of safely and the gas is sent to a compressor station and then may be used in power station. (arrowenergy.com, “What is coal seam gas”. 19/05) CSG mining is an important growth industry for Australia and Asian, particularly China and India. It has the potential to underpin significant economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region and contribute to global energy security also to bring billions of dollars and jobs to Australia. CSG has come across as a flexible, clean and competitive source of energy with lower emission fuels means less amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). (globalskm.com, Merz.S 19/05) Our land
-food and agriculture
-land holder rights
Sink Holes have known to be linked to Coal seam gas mining, more pacifically the fracking process, where a large drill drills in to the a coal seam to release pressure and collect the gas. Once the mining is complete you are left with very large and deep hole which sometimes go straight through underground cave systems as time goes by the surface of the hole will be covered up but you are still left with large cracks throughout the ground which water will flow down and start to erode and the cracks become holes and then them holes turn in to one big sink hole. Australia is well known for its beautiful green grazing land and healthy livestock but these amazing characteristics may be under threat with the government granting licences for almost the entire continent and are planning on doubling our coal export. This is a major threat toward our livestock and eco systems, many habitats of threaten species are being cleared to make room for CSG mining for example Brigalow and the Pilliga. These two areas have the reputation to be two of the finest ecosystems with an abundances of fauna and flora but these are now under threat with a 145km stretch of land 30m wide to be cleared to make room for pipeline to be laid from Casino (NSW) to Ipswich (QLD).Strong-flying birds will be able to cross this and eventually will wallabies and kangaroos, but smaller mammals, reptiles, frogs and weak flying birds will not, this will limit food supply and mates. While landholders own the surface land of their properties, resources such as CSG, Oils and metals below...
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