Cloud Computing

Topics: Cloud computing, USA PATRIOT Act, National Security Letter Pages: 6 (2063 words) Published: December 8, 2012
Amaya Polite Ilundain Emilien Echalier Gautier Malian Jonathan Mourolin English track A 11/26/2012

I) How does cloud computing work? How did it come about? Where is it going in the future? II) How does it affect people and businesses: What is its value? What negative impact does it have? III) Which companies will sell it and what is the nature of the business? IV) Does government need to control this new technology? Why ? V) Opinion about Cloud computing.

IN 2009 The Cloud Security Alliance declared that the “cloud describes the use of a collection of services, applications, information, and infrastructure comprised of pools of compute, network, information, and storage resources. These components can be rapidly orchestrated, provisioned, implemented and decommissioned, or scaled up and down (Rapid elasticity ) ” . Indeed cloud computing is used by people; they use computing resources ( hardware and software ) delivered on the internet ( over a network ) and reachable through heterogeneous devices ( Broad network access) . End users can access cloud based applications via the internet while the business software and user’s data are stored on servers . Thus, All they can see are “front-end layers “ ,that is, interfaces that people see and interact with ., these very layers need to be fuelled, though . That’s the role of “back-end layers”, they consist of the hardware and the software architecture .

Reference : http://www.buzzle.com/articles/how-does-cloud-computing-work.html http://mjskok.com/resource/2012-future-cloud-computing-2nd-annual-survey-results


Globalization explains the use of cloud computing : nowadays, people need to have access to information from everywhere ( either in management or in personal life ). Moreover data increasing-complexity ( as data volume keeps increasing ) made cloud computing very interesting, as well as the possibility to reduce hardware expenses . Indeed, the potential for cost savings is a key factor in the equation. In the 2010 Global Information Security Survey, Ernst and Young (2010) found organizations searching for ways to reduce IT expenditures without sacrificing technological advantages, stating: “Their interest lies in computing services that require significantly less initial investment”

http://isacahouston.org/documents/WhatisCloudComputingandWhyDoWeNee dIt.pdf


Cloud computing mainly developed thanks to the improvement of virtualization technology, the development of universal high-speed bandwidth and universal software interoperability standards. A milestone came in 2009, as Google and others started to offer browser-based enterprise applications, through services such as Google Apps.

Reference : http://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/node/1744132

Cloud computing has a promising future .Indeed, not only does it reduce capital expenditures, it also shrinks energy consumption and carbon emissions . It is said that , by 2020, U.S. organizations that move to the cloud could save $12.3 billion in energy costs and the equivalent of 200 million barrels of oil.The business figures come along too. In 2009, revenue for cloud services was just over $58.6 billion. In 2011, IT spending is expected to top $2.6 trillion. Thus, The research firm Gartner projects that revenue for cloud services will approach $152.1 billion in 2014.

http://mjskok.com/resource/2012-future-cloud-computing-2nd-annual-survey-results http://www.forbes.com/sites/dell/2011/12/20/the-history-and-future-of-cloudcomputing/

A research from the London School of Economics based on a survey of more than 1000 businesses and IT executives explains that cloud computing will have an impact on the majority of organizations. 20% of this poll is already using cloud services and another 20% is planning a transition in the next 18 months. We can see that Cloud Computing is rapidly being adopted in a lot of organizations. Whether it provides a value or becomes a threat, the Cloud system is deeply...

References: 1/ http://www.itstrategists.com 2/ http://www.businessinsider.com 3/ http://www.networkworld.com 4/ http://www.gartner.com/technology
The answer is yes. In the case of the United States, there is the USA PATRIOT Act that was created in 2001 as an anti-terrorist measure as a response of the terrorist attacks of September 11th. It allows the U.S. government to access data that may help prevent terrorist attacks on their area. The official title of the USA PATRIOT Act is “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001”. Among other things, the Patriot Act makes it easier to intercept electronic communication and business records. This U.S. law applies for everyone living and visiting the country, and also to companies based in the U.S. whether they are headquartered or not there. Government has access to the information of any cloud provider which has his server in the U.S. Data that is housed or passes through U.S. can be intercepted by authorities. This means that if your cloud provider has any operation in the U.S., you are subject to United States jurisdiction. Companies like Microsoft, Google or Amazon are subject to the Act’s power all over the world. Thanks to the USA PATRIOT Act, the US Security services have access to various records and types of electronic communications, and to take hold of electronic data. These powers are not limited to data stored in the US, security agencies have also access to data that companies operating in the US have stored anywhere else. not only in the USA, though. A study conducted by Hogan Lovells shows that other countries like U.K., Germany, France, Japan and Canada have special laws that allow them to obtain personal data stored on cloud computing services. This study surveyed the laws in ten countries (Australia, Denmark, France, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Spain, UK, and Us) and shows that all of
them allow the government to require consumer data in the course of an investigation, but only German and U.S. allow cloud providers to notify their customers of that action. The ten countries also allow governments to monitor electronic communications which occur through cloud providers systems, but only eight of them require cloud providers to turn over information stored in other countries (not Germany and Japan). However these countries are also subject to the USA PATRIOT Act. if they choose to store their data on the cloud services of US providers. So many EU- based companies may still be unwilling to store their data in cloud providers that have a presence in the US, because access to their consumers’ data is limited by U.S. jurisdiction.
http://www.pcworld.com/article/256032/study_patriot_act_gives_us_governmen t_no_special_acess_to_cloud_data.html http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing
Cloud computing has many advantages. As we have seen earlier, easy access to information, increase in productivity and IT cost reducing ( among many others ) make Cloud a revolutionary concept in Business structures . True, sometimes companies have to deal with property issues and set up a more efficient data security system ( for all devices affected by the cloud ). These issues are internal though , that is, there are companies’ issues and do not come directly from the cloud service ( for instance, issues of security for all devices ) . To put it in a nutshell, Cloud is revolutionary and is really helpful to companies despite certain issues that come along . Cloud computing has definitely a promising future .
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