CLINICAL SUPERVISION

Topics: Observation, Education, Nonverbal communication Pages: 12 (1589 words) Published: April 16, 2015
SUPERVISION

CLINICAL

CLINICAL SUPERVISION
Conceptualized by Morris Cogan
Emerged as one of the most important and

powerful intervention measures since
1960’s.
According to Pajak, Cogan viewed clinical
supervision as a vehicle for developing
professional, responsible teachers who
were capable of analyzing their own
performance, who were open to change
and assistance from others, and to were
above all, self directing.

Key concepts of the
inventions measured
developed by Cogan
Self analysis
Openness to change
Willingness to accept

assistance
Self direction

Cogan insists that the proper domain of
clinical supervision is the classroom
behavior of the teacher, not the teacher as
a person. The focus is to understand what
happens in class, rather than to attempt to
change the personality of the teacher. In
order to bring the desired change in
classroom behavior, it is necessary that the
teacher observes:
 1. the behavior to be change
 2. the desired change
 3. the professional satisfaction that will
be derived from doing so.

Differences Between Clinical
Supervision and Traditional Supervision
Values
Aim
Basis
Focus
Frequency
Philosophy
Process
Responsibility

Clinical
Supervision
To improve
instruction
Classroom data
Limited specific
concerns
Based on needs
Promotes
independence
Cyclical
Shared between
teacher and
supervisor

Traditional
Supervision
Evaluation of
instruction
Observer’s rating
Broad general
concerns
Based on policy
Promotes
dependence
Linear
Supervisor’s
responsibility

FIVE FACES OF CLINICAL
SUPERVISION
Planning

Reflection

Feedbac
k

Observatio
n

Analysis

 

Planning Phase
The
purpose
of
planning
conference is to enable the
supervisor and the teacher to
identify the focus of observation in
a collaborative way. Collaborative
planning reduces the anxiety, and
makes
the
teacher
feel
comfortable about the process.

Observation Phase
After

the planning conference, the supervisor
finalizes the choice of observation tool depending
on the agreed upon focus. During the observation,
the supervisor gathers data and information using
the observation tool. It is the task of the
supervisor to record data and information as
accurately as possible, especially of patterns and
critical incidents during the class session.

Two of the more popular instruments used for
recording data are the Flanders’System of
Interaction Analysis and the Kounin System of
Analyzing Classroom Management.

Observation Phase
Flanders interaction model provides the teacher

and the supervisor the opportunity to draw
conclusions about the verbal classroom climate, and
to make inferences regarding the effectiveness of
the communication strategies employed in the
classroom.
The Kounin System of

Analyzing Classroom
Management
identifies
specific
teaching
techniques that help or hinder classroom discipline,
and demonstrates that the techniques and not the
teacher’s personality are the most crucial elements
in classroom control.

 

Data Analysis
Soon after the class observation, while the

event is still fresh in the mind, the clinical
supervisor collates, tries to make some
sense of the raw data, and develops a plan
for the post-observation conference.
The supervisor does not make any
conclusion but prepares the presentation
of the data in such a way that the teacher
is able to draw the conclusions by
himself/herself.

Some of the questions to be
consider in analyzing the data
What patterns and critical incidents did

the data indicate?
What strengths and weaknesses did the
teacher exhibit?
What technique were especially
successful?
What patterns, events, and concerns
needed to be address?
How will the conference begin and end?

Feedback
The result of the analysis of the data are
presented to the teacher during the postobservation...
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