Conceptualized by Morris Cogan
Emerged as one of the most important and
powerful intervention measures since
According to Pajak, Cogan viewed clinical
supervision as a vehicle for developing
professional, responsible teachers who
were capable of analyzing their own
performance, who were open to change
and assistance from others, and to were
above all, self directing.
Key concepts of the
developed by Cogan
Openness to change
Willingness to accept
Cogan insists that the proper domain of
clinical supervision is the classroom
behavior of the teacher, not the teacher as
a person. The focus is to understand what
happens in class, rather than to attempt to
change the personality of the teacher. In
order to bring the desired change in
classroom behavior, it is necessary that the
1. the behavior to be change
2. the desired change
3. the professional satisfaction that will
be derived from doing so.
Differences Between Clinical
Supervision and Traditional Supervision
Based on needs
Based on policy
FIVE FACES OF CLINICAL
conference is to enable the
supervisor and the teacher to
identify the focus of observation in
a collaborative way. Collaborative
planning reduces the anxiety, and
comfortable about the process.
the planning conference, the supervisor
finalizes the choice of observation tool depending
on the agreed upon focus. During the observation,
the supervisor gathers data and information using
the observation tool. It is the task of the
supervisor to record data and information as
accurately as possible, especially of patterns and
critical incidents during the class session.
Two of the more popular instruments used for
recording data are the Flanders’System of
Interaction Analysis and the Kounin System of
Analyzing Classroom Management.
Flanders interaction model provides the teacher
and the supervisor the opportunity to draw
conclusions about the verbal classroom climate, and
to make inferences regarding the effectiveness of
the communication strategies employed in the
The Kounin System of
techniques that help or hinder classroom discipline,
and demonstrates that the techniques and not the
teacher’s personality are the most crucial elements
in classroom control.
Soon after the class observation, while the
event is still fresh in the mind, the clinical
supervisor collates, tries to make some
sense of the raw data, and develops a plan
for the post-observation conference.
The supervisor does not make any
conclusion but prepares the presentation
of the data in such a way that the teacher
is able to draw the conclusions by
Some of the questions to be
consider in analyzing the data
What patterns and critical incidents did
the data indicate?
What strengths and weaknesses did the
What technique were especially
What patterns, events, and concerns
needed to be address?
How will the conference begin and end?
The result of the analysis of the data are
presented to the teacher during the postobservation...
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