Climate Profile India

Topics: Monsoon, Weather, India Pages: 115 (25563 words) Published: October 19, 2011
Government of India Ministry of Earth Sciences India Meteorological Department Met Monograph No. Environment Meteorology-01/2010

S. D. Attri and Ajit Tyagi



TREND=+0.560C/100 YEARS


Annual Mean Temp Anomalies (°C)








-0.8 1901












2009 2009







Met Monograph No. Environment Meteorology-01/2010

Contribution to the Indian Network of Climate Change Assessment (NATIONAL COMMUNICATION-II) Ministry of Environment and Forests

S D Attri and Ajit Tyagi

India Meteorological Department Ministry of Earth Sciences New Delhi 2010

Copyright © 2010 by India Meteorological Department All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer and Limitations IMD is not responsible for any errors and omissions. The geographical boundaries shown in the publication do not necessarily correspond to the political boundaries.

Published in India By Environment Monitoring and Research Centre, India Meteorological Department, Lodi Road, New Delhi- 110003 (India) Phone: 91-11-24620701 Email:

The beginnings of meteorology in India can be traced to ancient times from the philosophical writings of the Vedic period, contain serious discussion about the processes of cloud formation and rain and the seasonal cycles caused by the movement of earth round the sun. But, the Modern Meteorology is regarded to have had its firm scientific foundation in the 17th century after the invention of thermometer, barometer and the formulation of laws governing the behaviour of atmospheric gases. India is fortunate to have some of the oldest meteorological observatories of the world like those at Calcutta (now Kolkata) in 1785 and Madras (now Chennai) in 1796 for studying the weather and climate of India India Meteorological Department (IMD) has progressively expanded its infrastructure for meteorological observations, communications, forecasting and weather services and it has concurrently contributed to scientific growth since its inception in 1875. One of the first few electronic computers introduced in the country was provided to IMD for scientific applications in meteorology. India was the first developing country in the world to have its own geostationary satellite, INSAT, for continuous weather monitoring of this part of the globe and particularly for cyclone warning. It has ventured into new areas of application and service, and steadily built upon its infra-structure during its history of 135 years. It has simultaneously nurtured the growth of meteorology and atmospheric science in India for sectoral services. Systematic observation of basic climate, environmental and oceanographic data is vital to capture past and current climate variability. IMD has provided climatic observations and products to the national requirements including National Communication (NATCOM). To meet the future need, it is in process of augmenting its weather and climate-related observation systems that underpins analytical and predictive capability which is critical for minimising extreme climate variability impacts. I am hopeful that this publication on “Climate Profile of India” will contribute to the “India’s National Communication-II” to be submitted to UNFCCC next year. The publication is based on the work mainly carried out by IMD scientists. I extend my sincere thanks to Sh. A K Bhatnagar, Dr A Mazumdar, Dr Y E A Raj, Sh B. Mukhopadhyay, Sh N Y Apte, Dr Medha Khole, Dr M Mohapatra, Dr A K Srivastava and Dr J Sarkar for providing requisite inputs.

October 2010 New Delhi

Ajit Tyagi Director General of Meteorology

INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT DOCUMENT AND DATA CONTROL SHEET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Document title Document type Issue No. Issue date Security Classification...

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