Climate Change and Development

Topics: Carbon dioxide, World energy resources and consumption, Emission standard Pages: 42 (11849 words) Published: January 30, 2011
Climate Change and Development

CLIMATE CHANGE: INDIA’S PERCEPTIONS, POSITIONS, POLICIES AND POSSIBILITIES Jyoti K. Parikh and Kirit Parikh (*) Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research

(*)

Senior Professor and Professor Emeritus respectively.

The ideas expressed in these case studies are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent views of the OECD or its Member countries

Climate Change: India’s Perceptions, Positions Policies and Possibilities

FOREWORD

In January 2001, the OECD held an expert seminar as part of a pilot project to investigate interactions between the long term agenda for climate change and sustainable development strategies. Experts from both OECD and developing countries attended. Participants identified issues and approaches, based on their regional perspectives, relevant to an evolving, equitable regime for addressing climate change, given various national circumstances, political interests, institutions and capacities to achieve sustainable development objectives. They stressed the importance of both climate mitigation and adaptation policy within a sustainable development framework. Discussions and presentations centred around two broad themes: • • Synergies and trade-offs between sustainable development objectives and long-term strategies to limit climate change. How to build analytical and implementation capacity in developing countries to maximise synergies at local, regional and global levels of decision-making.

To support seminar discussions, the OECD commissioned several papers (including this one) from nonOECD country experts; authors were asked to comment on key interactions between climate change and sustainable development from their own regional or national perspectives. This paper is being released as an informal working paper in the hope that it will continue to stimulate interest and discussions on these topics in other fora. The paper expresses the opinions of the author(s), and does not necessarily represent the views of either the OECD or its Member countries. Comments on the paper may be provided directly to the author(s): jp@igidr.ac.in Further inquiries about ongoing work in the OECD on climate change and sustainable development may be directed to: Georg Caspary of the OECD Development Co-operation Directorate: georg.caspary@oecd.org or to: Shardul Agrawala of the OECD Environment Directorate: shardul.agrawala@oecd.org The authors are grateful to Jan Corfee-Morlot for inviting us to contribute. Jan Corfee-Morlot, Noreen Beg and Georg Caspary of the OECD Secretariat have raised a number of questions and provided comments that have helped us to improve the paper. This paper extends and builds on an earlier version which was partly supported by UNDP.

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Climate Change: India’s Perceptions, Positions Policies and Possibilities

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD ................................................................................................................................................2 I. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................5 2. CLIMATE CHANGE: PERCEPTIONS.................................................................................................. 5 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Unsustainable Consumption Patterns .............................................................................................5 Methane Emissions and Subsistence Emissions.............................................................................5 Why should India be Concerned about Climate Change? ..............................................................5 Risk of Lower Agricultural Production ..........................................................................................6 Risk of Sea Level...

References: Asian Development Bank (1995) Climate Change in Asia, Article by V. Asthana. Bolin B., (editor), (1995) IPCC Guidelines for Estimating National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Vol. I, II and III, published by UNEP, OECD, IEA and IPCC, 1995. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (1993), Trends '91 A Compendium of Data on Global Changes, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Cline W.R. (1992) Economics of Global Warming, Institute of International Economics, Washington D.C. Forest Survey of India (1988) The state of forest report 1987. Forest Survey of India, Dehra Dun. Forest Survey of India (1996) The state of forest report 1995. Forest Survey of India, Dehra Dun. IPCC, (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change), (1992) The First Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. IPCC, (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), (1996) The Science of Climate Change, Vol. 1 of Climate Change 1995: IPCC second assessment report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Kumar, K.S. Kavi and Jyoti Parikh, (1997) "Potential impacts of global climate change on Indian agriculture", presented at the workshop, Measuring the impacts of Climate Change on Indian and Brazilian agriculture, held at the World Bank, Washington D.C., 5-7 May. Kumar, K.S. Kavi and Jyoti Parikh, (1998) "Climate change impacts on Indian agriculture: The Ricardian approach". in Dinar et.al., Measuring the impacts of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture, World Bank Technical Paper No.402, 1998. Kumar, K.S.Kavi, Parikh, J., 2001a. ‘Socio-economic Impacts of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture’, International Review for Environmental Strategies, 2(2). Kumar, K.S.Kavi, Parikh, J., 2001b. ‘Indian Agriculture and Climate Sensitivity’, Global Environmental Change, 11, pp. 147-154. Manne, A.S. and Richels, R.G., (1993) Buying Greenhouse Insurance, Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press. Mitra A.P. (Ed.), (1992) Global Change: Greenhouse Gas Emissions in India – 1991 Methane Campaign, Scientific Report No. 2, NPL, Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, India, June 1992.
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Climate Change: India’s Perceptions, Positions Policies and Possibilities Mitra A.P., (Ed.) (1996) Global Change Greenhouse Gas Emission in India – Methane Budget Estimates from Rice Fields based on Data available upto 1995, Scientific Report No.10, Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, India, July 1996. Murthy, N. S., Manoj Panda and Jyoti Parikh (1997a) “Economic Development, Poverty Reduction and Carbon Emissions in India”, Energy Economics, Vol.19, No.3. Murthy, N. S., Manoj Panda and Jyoti Parikh (1997b) “Economic Growth, Energy Demand and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in India: 1990-2020”, Environment and Development Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2 (forthcoming). Murthy N.S., Manoj Panda and Kirit Parikh, (2000) “CO2 Emissions Reduction Strategies and Economic Development of India”, IGIDR Discussion paper. Nag, Barnali and Jyoti Parikh (2000) Indicators of Carbon Emission Intensity from Commercial Energy Use in India, Energy Economics, Vol. 22, pp. 441-461. National Accounts Statistics, 1993-94 Economic and Political Weekly Research Foundation. Painuly J.P. (2000) “Kyoto Protocol and Voluntary Commitments: What are the Risks to Developing Countries” Invited Paper, International Symposium on Development Policies for the New Millennium in Honour of Professor Kirit S. Parikh, IGIDR, July 12-14, 2000. Parikh Jyoti, and Gokarn S. (1992) “Climate Change and India 's Energy Policy Options:New Perspectives on Sectoral CO2 Emissions and Incremental Costs”, Global Environmental Change, Sept. 1993. Parikh Jyoti and Gokarn S., (1993) Climate Change and India 's Energy Policy Options, Global Environmental Change, Vol. 3(3), 276 291. Parikh Jyoti (1992) “IPCC Response Strategies Unfair to the South”, Nature, Vol. 360, pp. 507-508, 10th December. Parikh Jyoti, (1993) “Joint Implementation and Sharing Commitments: A Southern Perspective”. Proceedings of a workshop held on Oct. 16-18, 1994 on Integrated Assessment for Climate Change at International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria. Parikh Jyoti, (1994) “North-South Issues for Climate Change”, Economic and Political Weekly, pp.2940-2943, November 5-12. Parikh Jyoti, (1998) “Linking Technology Transfer with Clean Developoment Mechanism (CDM): A Developing Country Perspective”, Presented at Columbia University.
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Climate Change: India’s Perceptions, Positions Policies and Possibilities Parikh Jyoti, and Kirit Parikh (1998) “Free Ride through Delay: Risk and Accountability for Climate Change”, Journal of Environment and Development Economics, Vol.3, Part 3, 1998. Parikh Jyoti, Kirit Parikh, Subir Gokarn, J.P. Painuly, Bibhas Saha and Vibhooti Shukla (1991) “Consumption Patterns: The Driving Force of Environmental Stress”, IGIDR prepared for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), IGIDR Monograph. Parikh Jyoti, Roy Culpeper and Davis Runnalls, J.P. Painuly (Eds.), (1997) Climate Change and North-South Cooperation, Tata McGraw Hills Publishing Co.Ltd., New Delhi. PCRA Report (1994), A Pursuit with a Purpose, Petroleum Conservation and Research Association, New Delhi. Reddy B.S. and Jyoti K. Parikh, (1997) “Economic and Environmental Impacts of Demand Side Management Programmes”, Energy Policy, Vol.25, No.3. Report of Task Force on Wastelands Development in the IX Five Year Plan (May 1996) Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment, Government of India, New Delhi. Rosenzweig, C. and M.L. Parry. 1994 "Potential impact of climate change on world food supply", Nature, 367(6450), pp.133-138. Schelling, T.C. (1993), Nakicenovic et.al (ed), Proceedings of a workshop held on Oct. 16-18, 1994 on Integrated Assessment for Climate Change at International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria. Sundaraman N., (1997), Reference Manual and Workbook of the IPCC 1996, Revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Published by IPCC, 1997. United Nations (1992) Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations, New York. Wholesale price indices, Office of Economic Advisor, 1995, GOI. Wigley, T., R.Richels and J.Edmonds, (1996) “Economic and evnironmental choices in the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations”, Nature, 379, pp.240-243. World Bank, (1992) World Development Report (1992), World Bank, Washington D.C. Yohe, G., (1990) “The Cost of Not Holding Back the Sea”, Coastal Management, 18, pp.403-431.
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