a room in a school
where lessons take
It is a community of learners
where formal interaction takes
place between the teacher and
The classroom should be
arranged to promote efficient
learning and minimize behavior
According to Vygotsky, until
children learn to use mental tools,
their learning is largely controlled
by the environment.
Recognizing that learning hinges on
student experiences both within and
outside the classroom, educators
need to commit to build a campus
community that maximizes student
learning. (Boyer, 1987; Chickering & Gamson, 1987;
Gabelnick, MacGregor,Matthews, & Smith, 1990; Study Group
on the Conditions of Excellence inAmerican Higher Education, 1984; Watson & Stage, 1999).
Classroom management refers to the wide
variety of skills and techniques that
teachers use to keep students organized,
orderly, focused, attentive, on task, and
academically productive during a class.
Lee and Marlene Canter (1976) contend that
teachers have a basic right to teach and
students have the right to learn in a welldisciplined classroom.
Kohn (1999) and Cameron and
Sheppard (2006) believe that effective
classroom management is crucial to
teaching, learning, and student
Boynton and Boynton (2005) believe
that ineffective classroom
management skills can waste
instructional time, reduce time-ontask, and interrupt learning environments.
Many teachers are entering classrooms
without in-depth content knowledge,
poor classroom management strategies,
negative attitudes, and minimal skills to
thwart disruptive behavior that impedes
learning and minimizes student
achievement (Cameron & Sheppard,
2006; Boynton & Boynton, 2005;
Classrooms with frequent disruptive
behaviors have less academic
engaged time, and the students in
disruptive classrooms tend to have
lower grades and do poorer on
standardized tests. (Shinn et al., 1987).
How to manage a classroom?
One of the most common concerns of
teachers is how to manage a classroom full of
(Evertson & Weinstein, 2006).
the Canters advocate assertive discipline, which
calls for assertive teachers who clearly and firmly
communicate needs and requirements to
students, follow up their words with appropriate
actions, and respond to students in ways that
maximize compliance but in no way violate the
best interest of the students (Canter & Canter,
1976, p. 9).
Research has shown us that teachers' actions in
their classrooms have twice the impact on
student achievement as do school policies
regarding curriculum, assessment, staff
collegiality, and community involvement
Wubbels and his colleagues (Wubbels,
Brekelmans, van Tartwijk, & Admiral, 1999;
Wubbels & Levy, 1993) identify appropriate
dominance as an important characteristic of
effective teacher-student relationships
The seminal research of the 1980s (Emmer, 1984;
Emmer, Sanford, Evertson, Clements, & Martin, 1981;
Evertson & Emmer, 1982) points to the importance
of establishing rules and procedures for general
classroom behavior, group work, seat work,
transitions and interruptions, use of materials and
equipment, and beginning and ending the period or
Teachers should be aware of the
students with high needs.
problems, perfectionist, socially inept]
Marzano, R.J. (2003).
The Association of School Counselors notes
that 18 percent of students have special
needs and require extraordinary
interventions and treatments that go
beyond the typical resources available to
the classroom (Dunn & Baker, 2002).
Kaufman (2000, 2001)
organization as the physical
structures and procedural...
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