Look at Ur’s list of patterns of interaction below. Decide whether each interaction is either more student-centred or more teacher-centred. Justify your answers.
more student-centred: students work in small groups on tasks that entail interaction: conveying information, or group decision-making. The teacher intervenes little.
Closed-ended teacher questioning
more teacher-centred: the teacher asks questions the students and can be used for clarifiying facts, verifying information already given or controlling a conversation.
more student-centred: the teacher gives a task or set of tasks, and students work on them independently; the teacher walks around monitoring and assisting where necessary.
more teacher-centred: the teacher gives a model which is repeated by all the class in the chorus; or gives a cue which is responded to in chorus.
more student-centred: students do the same sort of tasks as in 'Individual work', but work together, usually in pairs, to try to achieve the best results they can. The teacher may or may not intervene.
Student initiates, teacher answers
more student-centred: the students think of questions and the teacher responds, but the teacher decides who asks.
more student-centred: the students debate a topic or do a language task as a class, the teacher may intervene occasionally, to stimulate participation or to monitor. Teacher talk
more teacher-centred: this may involve some kind of silent student response, such as writing from dictation, but there is no initiative on the part of the student.
more student-centred: students choose their own learning tasks, and work autonomously.
Open-ended teacher questioning
more student-centred: there are a number of possible 'right' answers, so that more students answer each cue.
Categorise each of the following errors under one of these headings: grammar; pronunciation; meaning; appropriacy. Justify your answers.
How you come to school?
Grammar, because here is a grammar mistake, present simple needs do to make question.
I go always to France for my holidays.
Grammar, because here is a grammar mistake, instead of preposition for it’s correct to use on.
I don’t like travelling by sheep.
Pronunciation, because there is always a confusion between sheep the long vowel I and in the word ship the short vowel i.
(Mike speaking to his boss) That’s a load of rubbish, mate.
Appropriacy, because it’s inappropriate to say to your boss mate.
She suggested us to go home.
Grammar, because there is incorrect usage of suggest, so it should be: she suggested going home to us.
Oh, of course! - you’re Peter, aren’t you? (rising intonation on aren’t you)
Pronunciation, because there is a falling intonation on aren’t you. (student in pub) Give me a beer.
Appropriacy, because there is impossible to say” give me a beer” in pub, it’s appropriate to say “Beer, please”. She went to the library to buy a book.
Meaning, it’s incorrect to go to the library to buy a book, because we buy books in a book shop.
Look at the following situations and decide if you would correct or not. If so, say when you would do so. Explain your answer.
A crucial issue for all teachers is to decide when and how to correct students' mistakes and who particularly must correct them. It is obvious that sometimes students can correct themselves when they realize that they’ve made an error. We believe that students should be given a chance, time, and sometimes a clue to correct themselves. Some clue can be given by just raising the eyebrows or giving hand signals or repeating the mistake. In this way students will know what their teacher means and back track to correct the error themselves. Very often students can correct one another....
Bibliography: 1. Berliner, D. C. (1987). Ways of Thinking About Students and Classrooms by More or Less Experienced Teachers. In J. Calderhead (Ed.). Exploring Teachers ' Thinking. London: Cassell Educational Limited.
2. Congebsi, James. (1997). Classroom Management Strategies. White Plains, New York: Longman.
3. Doyle, Walter. 1986. "Classroom Organization and Management." In Handbook of Research on Teaching, 3rd edition, ed. Merlin Wittrock. New York: Macmillan.
4. Doyle, Walter. 1990. "Classroom Management Techniques." In Student Discipline Strategies, Ed. Oliver C. Moles. Albany: State University of New York Press.
5. Duke, Daniel, ed. 1979. Classroom Management. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
6. Emmer, Edmund T.; Evertson, Carolyn M.; and Anderson, Linda M. 1980. "Effective Classroom Management at the Beginning of the School Year." The Elementary School Journal
7. Evertson, Carolyn M. 1985. "Training Teachers in Classroom Management: An Experiment in Secondary Classrooms." Journal of Educational Research
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9. Weade, Regina, and Evertson, Carolyn M. 1988. "The Construction of Lessons in Effective and Less Effective Classrooms." Teaching and Teacher Education
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