# Classification of Vibration

Vibration can be classified in several ways. Some of the important classifications are as follows.

•Free Vibration. If a system, after an initial disturbance, is left to vibrate on its own, the ensuing vibration is known as free vibration. No external force acts on the system. The oscillation of a simple pendulum is an example of free vibration. •Forced Vibration. If a system is subjected to an external force (often, a repeating type of force), the resulting vibration is known as forced vibration. The oscillation that arises in machines such as diesel engines is an example of forced vibration. If the frequency of the external force coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system, a condition known as resonance occurs, and the system undergoes dangerously large oscillations. Failures of such structures as buildings, bridges, turbines, and airplane wings have been associated with the occurrence of resonance. If no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillation, the vibration is known as undamped vibration. If any energy is lost in this way, however, it is called damped vibration. In many physical systems, the amount of damping is so small that it can be disregarded for most engineering purposes. However, consideration of damping becomes extremely important in analyzing vibratory systems near resonance.

If all the basic components of a vibratory system the spring, the mass, and the damper behave linearly, the resulting vibration is known as linear vibration. If, however, any of the basic components behave nonlinearly, the vibration is called nonlinear vibration. The differential equations that govern the behavior of linear and nonlinear vibratory systems are linear and nonlinear, respectively. If the vibration is linear, the principle of superposition holds, and the mathematical techniques of analysis are well developed. For nonlinear vibration, the superposition principle is not...

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