PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENT- CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) is a process of behavior modification made famous by Ivan Pavlov and his experiments conducted with dogs. In this process, a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus, by associating it with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response. Classical conditioning became the basis for a theory of how organisms learn, and a philosophy of psychology developed by John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner and others. Learning theory grew into the foundation of Behaviorism, a school of psychology that had great societal influence in the mid-20th century.
Classical conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Usually, the conditioned stimulus (CS) is a neutral stimulus (e.g., the sound of a tuning fork), the unconditioned stimulus (US) is biologically potent (e.g., the taste of food) and the unconditioned response (UR) to the unconditioned stimulus is an unlearned reflex response (e.g., salivation). After pairing is repeated (some learning may occur already after only one pairing), the organism exhibits a conditioned response (CR) to the conditioned stimulus when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone. The conditioned response is usually similar to the unconditioned response (see below), but unlike the unconditioned response, it must be acquired through experience and is relatively impermanent. In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is not simply connected to the unconditioned response. The conditioned response usually differs in some way from the unconditioned response, sometimes significantly. For this and other reasons, learning theorists commonly suggest that the conditioned stimulus comes to signal or predict the unconditioned stimulus, and go on to analyze the consequences of this signal. Robert A. Rescorla provided a...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document