Classical Conditioning

Topics: Classical conditioning, Behaviorism, Ivan Pavlov Pages: 4 (1166 words) Published: November 1, 2014
Learning can be described as the process that leads a person to permanently or potentially change his or her behaviour (Weeks, 1999-2012). In short, whatever you learn alters the way that you view your environment. In the field of psychology, behavioural psychology is a way to explain the learning process. Classical conditioning is a type of learning Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist whose research on the physiology of digestion led to the development of the first experimental model of learning, Classical Conditioning. Classical conditioning is defined as “a type of learning which is based on the association of a stimilus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that does elicit the response” (Papalia, Feldman, & Olds, 2007).Most of his research was gathered studying salivating dogs. The classical conditioning experiment conducted by Pavlov goes as follows: A dog is hooked to a mechanism that measures the amount that the dog salivates. A tone is sounded just before a dog is given meat powder. This occurs several times. Eventually, conditioning occurs in that the dog salivates just to the bell alone. Of course, the dog salivates instinctively in response to the food, but "learns" to salivate to the sound of the bell, much as you might find your mouth watering at the site, smell, or even memory of your favourite food. Pavlov used this relatively simple experiment as a model for describing much of the automatic/nonconscious learning that occurs in everyday life. In any case where you have "learned" to respond automatically to some sort of stimulus with fear, joy, excitement, or anticipation you have become classically conditioned.. Pavlov identified four basic components in this classical conditioning model. The unconditioned stimulus is the stimulus that naturally and instinctively elicits the target response, which, in the case of his classic experiment is the meat powder. The conditioned stimulus is the stimulus that...
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