Classical and Systems Approaches

Topics: Management, Scientific method, Project management Pages: 5 (1611 words) Published: May 7, 2013
Classical approach to management is dated back to the Industrial Revolution. the classical approach was an approach that places reliance on such management principals as unity of command, a balance between authority and responsibility, division of labor, and delegation to establish relationships between managers and subordinates. This approach constitutes the core of the discipline of management and the process of management. Classical Contributions Classical approach The term used to describe the hypotheses of the scientific management theorists and the general administrative theorists. Scientific management theorists Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt General administrative theorists Henri Fayol and Max Weber Frederick W. Taylor Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the “one best way” for a job to be done Believed that increased efficiency could be achieved by selecting the right people for the job and training them to do it precisely in the one best way. To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans. Separated managerial work from operative work. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker. (Previously, workers chose their own work and trained themselves as best they could.) Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers. (Previously, almost all the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the workers). * 8. Frederick W. Taylor Common Objective of Increasing Productivity for both Management and Workers Both should focus on increasing Production Increased Production to lead to Increased Profits Breaking job into components and devising s quicker n best way of doing the same Differential Rate System * 9. Contributions of Scientific Management Modern Assembly Line Efficiency Techniques application to wide range of service sector industries like Fast Food Limitations of Scientific Management Workers and Unions suspicion of Work Exhaustion Exploitation of Management on Productivity and Profitability issue * 10. Scientific Management Contributors Henry Gantt Incentive compensation systems Gantt chart for scheduling work operations Improvement on Taylor’s Incentive System Each Worker to win 50 cent bonus for finishing assigned work load Supervisor to earn bonus for each worker who reached daily standard plus an extra bonus if all workers reached it Publicly rating of each worker’s progress by black and red chart * 11. Administrative Management General administrative theorists Writers who developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice Guidelines for managing complex organizations Henri Fayol (France) Fourteen Principles of Management : Fundamental or universal principles of management practice Max Weber (Germany) Bureaucracy: Ideal type of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships * 12. Henri Fayol (France) Identify the principles and skills that underlie effective management Blueprint for cohesive doctrine of Management Focus on Total Organization and Management Most Frequent Applied Management principles Focus to break the misconception “Managers are born, not made” Advocated Management was a skill like any other ----once that could be taught * 13. Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management Division of work Authority Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of the individual Interest Remuneration Centralization The Hierarchy Order Equity Stability of tenure of personnel Initiative Esprit de corps * 14. Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management Division of Labor: Specialization leads to...
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