Civil War

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English Civil War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

English Civil War
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political problems between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers). The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The English Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son, Charles II, and replacement of English monarchy with, first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53), and then with a Protectorate (1653– 59), under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although this concept was legally established only with the Glorious Revolution later in the century.

English Civil War
Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms

The victory of the Parliamentarian New Model Army, under Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, over the Royalist army, commanded by Prince Rupert, at the Battle of Naseby (14 June 1645) marked the decisive turning point in the English Civil War.

Date Location

22 August 1642 – 3 September 1651 (9 years, 1 week and 5 days) Kingdom of England Parliamentarian victory Execution of King Charles I Establishment of the Republican Commonwealth under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 Background 2.1 The King's Rule 2.2 Parliament in the English constitutional framework 2.3 Parliamentary concerns and the Petition

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