Martin Luther King
Martin Luther king was an American clergyman and civil-rights leader. He was born in Atlanta, GA January 16, 1929. .He was a Morehouse College In 1951 he received a degree from Crozer Theological Seminary and enrolled in Boston University Ph.D program. In 1954, King became minister of the Dexter Ave. Baptist Church in Montgomery, AL. He began leading the black boycott in 1955 of segregated city bus lines and in 1956 gained a major victory and stature as a civil-rights leader when Montgomery buses began to run desegregated. King organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which gave him a pedestal to pursue further civil-rights activities. Despite his philosophy of nonviolent resistance, He was arrested on numerous occasions in the 1950s and 60s. His campaigns had mixed success, but the protest he led in Birmingham, Ala., in 1963 brought him worldwide attention. He organized the August 1963, March on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and in 1958 he was assassinated.
The militant Black Panthers were founded in 1966 in Oakland, CA, by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. They were originally advocating violent revolution as their means of achieving black liberation, and they called on blacks to prepare themselves for the liberation struggle. In the late 1960s many members became involved in a numbers of violent controversies confrontations with the police and court cases, some resulting from direct shoot-outs with the police and some from independent charges. While controversy raged over