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civics outline

By Ryan-Flanigan Dec 16, 2013 935 Words
Test Outline Questions

Democracy: form of government in which laws are made by a direct vote of citizens. Indirect democracy involves elections with candidates often coming from competing political parties.

Authoritarian Government:A system of government in which rulers accept unquestionable obedience from those who they rule.

Dictatorship:Form of government in which one leader holds absolute power over their state and is unrestricted by law, written constitutions or other limits.

Negotiate: To discuss something in an attempt to reach agreement

Mediate: To help parties involved in a conflict negotiate a mutually agreeable solution; the Mediator must be from a "Third Party", not in the conflict.

Arbitrate: to judge a dispute between two opposing parties

Direct Democracy: A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

Representative Democracy: A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.

Constitutional Democracy: Government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections

Pluralism: the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation

Sovereignty of the People: The people are the ones who are ultimately in charge in a democracy

Government Based upon Consent of the Governed: Representatives only get to be in charge if the people vote them in.

Majority Rule: What goes on in a democracy is based on what most people want

Minority Rights: Individuals who are not part of the majority (the minority) still have rights that are protected, so that the majority cannot simply trample over them.

Guarantee of Basic Human Rights: Governments must respect certain human rights. (all people are given)

Free and Fair Elections: Governments are elected to office, everyone is free to run, and the process of the election is fair. There can be no cheating (tampering with votes)

Equality Before the Law: Everyone is equal before the law and no one is above the law - not even members of the government

Due Process of Law: A person cannot be deprived of life, liberty or property without legal procedures and safeguards

Constitutional Limits on Government: Constitutions say what government can and cannot do; so the government’s power is not absolute

Social, Economic, and Political Pluralism: In a democracy there are many institutions, political parties, organizations, and associations that are involved in the political process. These groups do not depend on the government for their existence and authority.

Values of Tolerance, Pragmatism, Cooperation, and Compromise: These values and ideals must be upheld in a democracy. The people/ government in a democracy must be tolerant or differences, and take a practical approach to solving problems. Also cooperate to come to the best decision for all.

Communist State: Country whose government has strong control over the economy and society as a whole.

Junta: a military group ruling a country after seizing power

Illiberal Democracy: A procedural democracy, with elections, but without real competition, and lacking some civil rights and liberties.

Absolute Monarchy: a form of government headed by a ruler, or monarch, with unlimited power. Who was said to be appointed into power by God

Dissent: the difference of one judge's opinion from that of the majority

Accountable: expected to answer for one's actions; responsible, liable, answerable

Constitutional Monarchy: A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.

Note: These definitions were found on a user’s Quizlet (“rparris”, a former student I presume) and were used to help me study. Question 1:


Freedoms are presented from the constitution
Promotes choice to the majority of the people by using a voting system No politicians can be above the law
Equal rights are encouraged amongst everyone, no matter what race, religion, etc. People have the right to voice an opinion

The majority is not always right and can easily be made ignorant of by politicians Voting, while it should be free and fair, is often taken advantage of by some countries. The elections are rigged to have a certain party win. Advertisements are made by politicians to talk down and attempt to humiliate the other parties. Not everyone votes. In fact less people seem to be voting as the years progress Democracy can cause arguments and hateful protest because some people are unhappy that the person they voted for did not win.

Question 2:

People need governments so that the government can keep order, keep a strong economy, and build a strong, loyal military to protect.

Question 3:


The people have no say while there is one leader with all the power. There is no cap on the leader’s power
The people are often monitored and lack rights
The people are not allowed to express beliefs or opinions that the leader would not like or there would be consequences

Leader is decided by a majority-ruled vote elected by the people. Politicians are not before the constitution’s laws
Equal rights for all members of society
The people possess the right to express almost any opinion they desire

Question 4:

The first democrats derived from Athens in the 50th century B.C. An assembly of around 5,000 to 6,000 people chose a leader. This lasted a strong 200 years before falling

Question 5:

The common basic human rights are as follows:
Freedom of speech, expression, and the press.
Freedom of religion.
Freedom of assembly and association.
Right to equal protection of the law.
Right to due process and fair trial.

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