This handout is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), but is not a comprehensive guide. For all rules and requirements of APA citations, please consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
APA requires that information be cited in 2 different ways:
1. within the text and
2. in a reference list at the end of the paper.
The reference list should be on a new page, double spaced, and use the hanging indent method (all lines after the first one are indented).
1. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010.
2. Concise Rules of APA Style, 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010.
CITATIONS IN THE TEXT:
APA uses the author-date method of citation. The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place. When referencing or summarizing a source, provide the author and year. When quoting or summarizing a particular passage, include the specific page or paragraph number, as well. When quoting in your paper, if a direct quote is less than 40 words, incorporate it into your text and use quotation marks. If a direct quote is more than 40 words, make the quotation a freestanding indented block of text and DO NOT use quotation marks. Please note: references and web sites used as examples in this handout are fictitious and not able to be accessed.
One work by one author:
In one developmental study (Smith, 1990), children learned... OR
In the study by Smith (1990), primary school children...
In 1990, Smith’s study of primary school children…
Works by multiple authors:
When a work has 2 authors cite both names every time you reference the work in the text. When a work has three to five authors cite all the author names the first time the reference occurs and then subsequently include only the first author followed by et al. For example: First citation: Masterton, Slonewski, and Slowenski (2009) state that... Subsequent citations: Masterton et al. (2009) state that...
For 6 or more authors:
Cite only the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year. Works by no identified author:
When a resource has no named author, cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title). Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or Web page. Italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report. For example:
The site seemed to indicate support for homeopathic drugs (“Medical Miracles,” 2011). The brochure argues for homecare (Health Reform, 2007).
Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works with no author.
Two or more works in the same parenthetical citation:
Citations of two or more works in the same parentheses should be listed in the order they appear in the reference list (i.e., alphabetically, and then chronologically). Several studies (Jones & Padavastin, 2007; Patterson, 2005, 2003; Smith, 2010) suggest that... Specific parts of a source
Always give the page number for quotations or to indicate information from a specific table, chart, chapter, graph, or page. The word page is abbreviated but not chapter. For example:
The diagramme was assumed to be by Matson (Powell, 1989, Chapter 6), but later analysis showed it to be incorrect (Murphy, 1999, p. 85).
If, as in the instance of online material, the source has neither visible paragraph nor page numbers, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it. This allows the reader to locate the text in the source.
The patient wrote that she was unimpressed by the doctor’s bedside manner (Smith, 2006, Hospital Experiences section, para. 2).
CITATIONS IN A REFERENCE LIST:
In general, references should contain the author name, publication date, title, and...
Citations: Several studies (Jones & Padavastin, 2007; Patterson, 2005, 2003; Smith, 2010) suggest that...
The diagramme was assumed to be by Matson (Powell, 1989, Chapter 6), but later analysis
showed it to be incorrect (Murphy, 1999, p. 85).
The patient wrote that she was unimpressed by the doctor’s bedside manner (Smith, 2006,
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The guide to everything and then some more stuff. New
York, NY: Macmillan.
Gregory, G., & Parry, T. (2006). Designing smart homes for seniors (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA:
Becker, L. J., & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the health funding crisis. Journal of Social
Issues, 37(2), 1-7.
Hamfi, A. G. (1981). The Diverse Workplace. E-journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38 -48.
Bleckert, E. (2005, August 27). Patients reap conservation 's rewards. The New York Times.
Brislin, R. W. (2007). Cross-cultural training opportunities. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of
Cultural Diversity (Vol
Developmental genetics. (2005). In Cambridge encyclopedia of child development.
Hoscorp of Australia. (2001, March 15). 2001 Annual Report. Retrieved from
Census data revisited. (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 20012, from Australian Bureau of Statistics
(pp. 32- 41). New York, NY: H.W. Wilson. (Reprinted from Australian Health Review, pp. 2-26,
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