You first begin this experiment by purchasing the materials needed. Those materials are: stickers, markers, glue sticks, carrot sticks, celery sticks, colored bags, and brown bags. Once you’ve made the purchase of all the items, decorate the colored bags with the stickers and make fun designs with the markers and use the glue stick if needed. Next, fill the decorated, colored bags and the brown bags with either ten carrot sticks or ten celery sticks or five of each. Then, take the snacks to separate classrooms children between the ages of four and five and observe them over a week’s period. The main goal of the experiment is to see whether or not the appeal of the packaging persuades children to eat healthy so record the data in a table. I order to collect the data, retrieve the bags of snacks after each child is finished and see how many items were eaten. Once this is determined over a week’s time, compare the decorated bag’s results and the brown bag’s results. If the hypothesis is proved by a majority of the items being eaten out of the decorated bags then the experiment was a success. Seminar in Public Administration (RP 515) // CR 20381 Week 4 (6 Feb) – Public Policy
Discussion Leader: Juanita White
Thomas R. Dye (2013): Chapter 3 – The Policy Making Process: Decision-Making Activities, pp. 28-50.
The Policy Process: How Policies Are Made
The study of how policies are made generally considers a series of activities, or process, that occur within the political system. These processes together with the activities involved and likely participants may be portrayed as in Table 3-1 pp. 29.
Problem Identification and Agenda Setting
Who decides what will be decided? Deciding what will be the problems is even more important than deciding what will be the solutions. Creating an issue, dramatizing it, calling attention to it, and pressuring the government to do something about it are important political tactics. These are employed by influential individuals, organized interest groups most important, the mass media. These are the tactics of “agenda setting”.
Agenda Setting From the Bottom Up
The prevailing model of policy making in American political science is a popularly driven “bottom up” portrait of decision making. This “democratic-pluralist” model assumes that any problem can be identified by individuals or group, by candidates seeking election, by the mass media seeking “to create” news, and even by protest groups deliberately seeking to call attention to their problems.
Public Opinion and Agenda Setting
Concern over terrorism dominated the public’s mind following the horrific televised attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. Later the war in Iraq became “the most important problem facing the country” according to opinion polls. The real issue, however of the financial collapse and deep recession soon replaced all other issues on the public’s agenda. The nation’s “top priority” for President Barack Obama became jobs and the economy.
Agenda Setting From the Top Down. (pp. 31)
Popular Perception of Policy Making. (pp. 31)
Elite Agenda Setting
The elitist model of agenda setting focuses on the role of leaders in business, finance, and the media, as well as in government. These leaders may observe societal developments they perceive as threating to their own values or interest; or they may perceive opportunities to advance their own values and interests or their own careers. According to sociologist G. William Domhoff, agenda setting “begins informally in corporate boardrooms, social clubs, and discussion groups, where problems are identified as issues’ to be solved by new policies. Moreover, corporate presidents, directors, and top wealth-holders also sit on the governing boards of these institutions and oversee the general...
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