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cigarette smoking

By RRF25 May 03, 2014 960 Words
Chapter I
I. INTRODUCTION
Many people nowadays smoke cigarette even teenagers smoke. Some people have no idea about the chemical of a tobacco and what it can cause to a human body. This paper is intended to give the readers an idea of the factors that trigger cigarette smoking amongst young generation of today, effects of cigarette, like cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.

By reading this paper, a person can gain knowledge about the effects of smoking cigarette. So when a person reads this especially those who smoke, he or she may quit or lessen smoking because he or she will know the bad effects of cigarette smoking.  It is considered that cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death, leading to an annual five million deaths around the globe. It is estimated that if current smoking patterns carry on, the annual death toll could rise to more than eight million by 2030. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for many cancers and respiratory diseases. The heavier the usage of an individual and the longer he smokes, the higher the risks for smoking-related illnesses. Cigarette smoking involves inhaling smoke into the lungs. A cigarette contains more than 4000 poisonous chemicals such as nicotine, arsenic, methane, ammonia, cadmium, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, butane, and hydrogen cyanide. Inhaled cigarette smoke can damage the lungs' cilia, tiny hair-like structures that sweep away debris from the lungs. With the cilia paralyzed by smoking, particles such as dirt and toxins can settle in the lung sacks and form tar. These toxins can then move from the lungs via the bloodstream to other parts of the body. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2009, almost 25 percent of all Filipino adults smoke very day. 94% of Filipinos are aware of illnesses caused by smoking. 48.8% of non-smoking Filipinos are exposed to cigarette smoke at home. There are about 20,000 smoking-related deaths in the country every day. The Philippines is the 15th biggest cigarettes consumer in the world and the largest among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). While the Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003 bans cigarette commercials on television, radio, cable, print and billboards, it permits advertising within "point of sale retail establishments." Recently an alliance called G-7 was formed to consistently implement an anti-smoking campaign enforcing RA 9211. G-7 is composed of the Marikina, Pasig, Mandaluyong, Caloocan, Makati, Manila and Quezon cities. Thus, the researcher has chosen factors that trigger cigarette smoking amongst young generation of today as the primary focus of the study. II. RATIONALE AND IMPORTANCE

This study will be beneficial to those students, who are conducting similar study. Additionally, it will provide information, figures, data, and statistics that are related to some factors associated with cigarette smoking. Moreover, readers can get information pertaining on the factors that trigger cigarette smoking amongst young generation of today. Furthermore, it may serve a reminder to chain smokers leading to quitting smoking. III. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Cigarette Smoking amongst Students in Philippines (13 – 15 Years) Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. A disproportionate share of the global tobacco burden falls on developing countries, where an estimated 84% of the world's 1.3 billion current smokers live (1). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and CDC, was developed to monitor youth tobacco use, attitudes about tobacco, and exposure to tobacco smoke, and has been completed by approximately 1.4 million students in 133 countries (2). A key goal of GTSS is for countries to conduct the GYTS every 4 years. This report presents findings from the GYTS conducted in the Philippines in 2000 and 2003, which revealed substantial declines in the proportions of students aged 13--15 years who currently smoked cigarettes, currently used other tobacco products, were likely to start smoking in the next year, or were exposed to secondhand smoke in public places. The findings also indicated an increase in the proportion of students who supported bans on smoking in public places, had learned about the dangers of tobacco use in school, and had seen antitobacco messages in media and advertising. Public health authorities in the Philippines should evaluate their current tobacco-control programs and enhance or expand them to further reduce youth smoking. GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data from students aged 13--15 years by using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame, selecting participating schools and classes, and processing data. GYTS uses a two-stage, cluster-sample design that produces representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13--15 years (2). In the Philippines, this age range is covered by the second, third, and fourth years of secondary school; the GYTS sampling frame included all secondary schools containing these grade levels. At the first sampling stage, the probability of selecting a school was proportional to the number of students enrolled in the specified grades. At the second stage, classes within the selected schools were randomly selected. All students attending school in the selected classes on the day the survey was administered were eligible to participate. In 2000, a total of 11,630 students completed the GYTS, and in 2003, a total of 7,478 completed the survey. The school response rate was 90.0% in 2000 and 99.3% in 2003; the student response rates were 88.7% and 85.4%, respectively; and the overall response rates (i.e., school rate multiplied by student rate) were 79.7% and 84.8%, respectively. This analysis compared the 2000 and 2003 survey results by using several indicators of tobacco use. The indicators included lifetime cigarette smoking, age of initiation of cigarette smoking, current cigarette smoking, current use of other tobacco products, likelihood of never smokers to initiate smoking in the next year, exposure to secondhand smoke, tobacco education, exposure to tobacco images in media and advertising, cessation efforts, and access to tobacco. All differences noted are statistically significant (p

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