Global consumption of cigarettes has been rising markedly; approximately one billion men and roughly 250 million women are cigarette consumers (Evan, 2008, Internet). The underestimation that cigarette smokers make towards the severity of health jeopardies of cigarette smoking damages their mental and physical states acutely, and fifty percent will die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses (WHO, 2008, Internet). A miscellany of methods has been determined in order to deal with the cigarette smoking matter, but the precise solution is remaining contentious throughout the years. The majority of people believe that the beneficial scheme to control cigarette smoking is to prohibit the cigarette advertising in the public domain, of which still necessitate fundamental answers to ascertain whether this can be correct or not. This essay will be first focused on how effectiveness the given belief can genuinely be, and then some answers will be addressed by observing at some statistical proofs.
Before we move on to elucidate the particular belief, we must first have to comprehend the level of control. The control consists of seven categories of media, specifically television, radio, outdoor, print, cinema, point of sale and sponsorships (Evan, 2008, Internet). According to Saffer and Chaloupka, bans cover up less than two media are regarded as weak regulations, three or four bans as limited and over or more as comprehensive (Evan, 2008, Internet). Hence, we can perceive that the regulations that have been used to make the cigarette advertising illegal in public regions are weak regulations.
Comprehensive advertising prohibitions on all advertising media have a tremendous influence on the consumption of cigarette, but prohibitions on only outdoor broadcasting have an insignificant outcome. In accordance with Saffer and Chaloupka, weak regulations are incapable of diminishing the proportions of cigarette smoking for the reason that permitted sources can be substituted for the forbidden sources (Evan, 2008, Internet). For example, if outdoor advertising is placed under the ban, the tobacco industry will publicize its manufactured product through newspapers, television, and the internet otherwise (WHO, 2008, Internet). World Health Organization indicates that partial prescriptions provide the opportunity for the business to manipulate people to participate in smoking, and more importantly induce smokers to continue smoking (WHO, 2008, Internet). Interestingly, countries with limited interdictions pointed out that there were remarkable reductions in the consumption of cigarette in their countries, which were later declared that this was a fallacious illustration since only five countries have such a policy in 2002 (Evan, 2008, Internet). All-inclusive bans on the advertisement of cigarette, in fact, have curtailed the tobacco consumption immensely. It is corroborated that there has been a 6.3 percent diminution in smoking per adult among countries that have set inclusive advertising bans into effect (WHO, 2008, Internet). Evidently, extensive regulations on cigarette broadcasting are doubtless incentive in lessening the consumption of cigarette, but weak regulations apparently do not.
Three considerable solutions, which have been discovered to be engendering desirable outcomes in preventing people from smoking, will be specified in following paragraphs.
Firstly, warning labels, predominantly large graphic warning labels, have an extreme affiliation with both former smokers and initiative smokers. In tobacco advertising, the tobacco industry deliberately deludes people to assume apocryphal details to be realistic (Judith & Michael, 2008, Internet). By the ways of comparing the yields of tar and nicotine, for example, consumers inhale a larger amount of tar and nicotine when compared to the data of the yields cited on packs (Judith & Michael, 2008, Internet). It has been ascertained that large graphic labels advance the awareness of users about the hazard of smoking, motivate smokers to quit, and prevent nonsmokers from engaging in smoking (Tobacco Free Kids, Internet). The survey on the Canadian health warning, for instance, accentuates that 90 percent of surveyed smokers discerned the warnings, 43 percent were more cognizant of the health consequences of smoking, and 44 percent had the enthusiasm to give up on smoking (Evan, 2008, Internet). Undeniably, large pictorial warning labels not only embolden people to relinquish smoking, but also apprise people how perilous smoking truly is to health.
Secondly, the cigarette tax escalation is extremely efficient in lowering tobacco consumption. Economic studies demonstrate that every 10 percent growth in the cigarette taxes cuts down the inclusive cigarette consumption by three to five percent, lessens the number of adolescent and adult smokers by 3.5 percent, and drops off the number of adolescence who smoke by six or seven percent (Tobacco Free Kids, Internet). Nations that have raised tobacco prices have encountered a phase in which smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption were plummeted dramatically. A 10 percent upsurge in tobacco taxes declines tobacco consumption by 4 percent in developed countries and 8 percent in underdeveloped countries (WHO, 2008, Internet). In accordance with the 2007 President's Cancer Panel, boosting the price of cigarette through taxation have substantiated to be profoundly efficient in moderating tobacco use, persuading former users never to smoke again, and precluding potential users from smoking (Tobacco Free Kids, Internet).
Last but certainly not least, education is considered as one of the most advantageous approaches in tobacco control. In spite of the public proclamations of the threats of smoking, research acquire that numerous cigarette consumers are lack of knowledge regarding the detrimental results of smoking (Tobacco Free Kids, Internet). Education is widely accepted for its role in edifying people about the hazardous consequence of smoking, renunciation capabilities, and a perception of the behaviour of the tobacco industry (Judith & Michael, 2002, Internet). For exemplification, statewide tobacco prevention and cessation program, Tobacco-Free Florida, was put into practice in Florida in 2007 to strengthen the public capacity for understanding more precisely on the subject of cigarette smoking (Tobacco Free Kids, Internet). As a result, there were 18.6 percent diminutions in Florida adult smoking levels and 13 percent proliferations in the proportion of smokers who have attempted to desist from smoking (Tobacco Free Kids, Internet). Furthermore, abundant legislative or tax interventions will not be efficacious if there is no public comprehension, provision, and demand for such alterations (Judith & Michael, 2002, Internet). As in accordingly, an average of 87 percent of defendants in Argentina, India, Japan, Nigeria, and the Russian Federation enforce regulations to restrict tobacco use after they recognize the motive is to reduce youth smoking (Judith & Michael, 2002, Internet). The facts indicate that education certainly is a root of the whole complex, and it is tremendously indispensable in tobacco control.
Cigarette smoking causes the pernicious detriment not only to smokers but also nonsmokers, and sometimes without them knowing. The tobacco industry prophesies that consumption in the developed worlds will remain stable or decline, while consumption in the developing nations will become greater than ever (Evan, 2002, Internet). It has been demonstrated that outdoor advertising bans are incompetent in curbing cigarette consumption, but they can still play a substantial part, mutually with many other aspects such as warning labels, price policy, and education.
Evan B., (2008). The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries [online]. Available from: http://www.econrsa.org/papers/p_papers/pp13.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2013]
Judith M. & Michael P. E., (2002). The tobacco atlas [online]. World Health Organization. Available from http://books.google.com.kh/books?hl=en&lr=&id=BqNIwTkoYOoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA9&dq=ban+cigarette+advertising+in+public+areas&ots=T0_-AsvnnM&sig=XuS8uxgvsKzIEzdVsMzF7fYZNWs&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=ban%20cigarette%20advertising%20in%20public%20areas&f=true [Accessed 11 August 2013]
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Tobacco Free Kids, (Year Unknown). Public education campaigns reduce tobacco use [online] Available from: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0051.pdf [Accessed 31 August 2013]
WHO, (2008). Six policies to reverse the tobacco epidemic [online]. Available from: http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/mpower_report_six_policies_2008.pdf [Accessed 13 August 2013]