Chrysalis Counselling Essay Number 3 Year 2 Oct 14

Topics: Personality psychology, Carl Jung, Psychology Pages: 10 (2537 words) Published: February 7, 2015
Chrysalis; diploma in Psychotherapeutic counselling; Year 2 Essay 3 2,458 words P.Reeve; City College, Norwich 20/09/2014

“Describe and evaluate Carl Jung’s theory concerning personality types and show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals”.

For the purpose of this essay I will attempt to show an understanding of Carl Jung’s theory of personality types, evaluate his theory and show how the theory might help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals.

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was born in Kesswil, Thurgau in Switzerland, and studied Psychiatry, psychology, psychotherapy and analytical psychology at the University of Basel. Jung’s influences were; Eugen Bleuler (19th century Swiss psychiatrist), Sigmund Freud (19th century psychologist), Friedrich Nietzsche (German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer), and Arthur Schopenhauer (18th century German philosopher).

Jung married Emma Rauschenbach who was the daughter of a wealthy Swiss family; Emma was also a psychotherapist and author in her own right. Jung had a good relationship with his father however Jung’s mother suffered with bouts of depression and was known as very eccentric. Jung would often use his mother’s issues as reasons for his own difficulties in life.

Jung was the founder of analytical psychology and developed the concepts of extroversion and introversion; archetypes, and the collective unconscious. Jung’s work has been extremely influential within many fields including; psychiatry, study of religion, philosophy, archaeology, anthropology, and literature, Jung was also a prolific published writer. Jung was very religious by nature, and his work was based around this religiousness, he also held a fascination with philosophy and the occult. Because of Jung’s strange and unusual beliefs, many considered him to be a little mystic. Jung’s desire was to be seen as a “man of science”, his influence on popular psychology, the “psychologization of religion”, “spirituality” and the “new age movement has been huge.”


Carl Jung was one of the great personality theorists who was guided by and took inspiration from ancient models such as astrology. The study of personality has been going on for hundreds and possibly thousands of years, and Hippocrates himself (c. 460-377/359 BC) studied others characters and personality traits.

Jung founded a new school of psychotherapy called analytical psychology, referred to as “Jungian Psychology”. Jung’s theories included the following;

The concept of “introversion and extroversion”.
The concept of the “complex”.
The concept of the “collective unconscious”, this includes the archetypes. “Synchronicity” as a mode of relationship that is not casual, an idea that has influenced Wolfgang Pauli (with whom he developed the notion of “unus mundus” in connection with the notion of non-locality) and other physicists.

P.Reeve; City College, Norwich

Jung stated that a person’s psychological make-up works on two fundamental levels, the conscious and the unconscious. Jung believed that the conscious and unconscious worked in such a way that balanced each other out. For instance if a person’s conscious side responds in a particular manner, the unconscious will respond in such a way as to balance things out. Jung believed that we are all born with a natural and equal balance, and that if this balance was altered by external experiences or happenings, the mind would work to restore the equilibrium.

Jung saw consciousness as a product of rational and irrational systems of encountering and assessing reality. Jung developed a framework of “four functional types, consisting of two sets of pairs. These were described by Jung as being those from which “most differentiated function plays the principal role in an individual’s adaptation...
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