Chronic Pain

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Any pain that is experienced for more than 3 months is referred to as chronic pain. Chronic pain can either be continuous or episodic depending on the individual’s experience. According to the American Pain Society (2015) “nearly 50 million American adults have significant chronic pain or severe pain. Prevalence rate for females is 34.3% and for men it is 26.7%”. Each individual experiences chronic pain differently such as type, timing and location of pain. Pain may be described as dull, sharp, burning, stiffness. National Institutes of Health (2011) states “Chronic pain may arise from an initial injury, such as a back sprain, or there may be an ongoing cause, such as illness. However, there may also be no clear cause”. Medical treatment …show more content…
According to Chen (2010) guided imagery is defined as “a relaxation technique in which words, sounds, etc., are used to evoke positive mental images, feelings, and thoughts” (Pg. 159). The 19 participants were involved in a 7 week program that contained one week of baseline and the other 6 weeks had guided imagery. The participants were trained on how to successfully use guided imagery and were instructed to once to two daily. Chen (2010) stated “an audio recording was provided to participants for home practice to ensure success” (Pg. 162). The study found that participants who adhered to their home practice experienced significant decrease in physical pain. Another relaxation technique known as progressive muscle relaxation was used in the second …show more content…
The study was performed at the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, PA, it was a longitudinal study that followed 133 participants for 7 years. According to Rosenzweig’s study, “participants were instructed to practice 20-25 minutes of formal meditation daily. They were to follow this for 6 days per week. This formal mindfulness practice was on addition to the informal practice of being mindful in everyday activities. Weekly classes’ time also lasted 2.5 hours and was divided between meditation practices and small and large group discussions, and mindfulness skill-building activities. Additional the course included 1 full day (7 hours) of practice on the weekend of the 6th week. Written material and audio CDs were given to participants to help with home practice” (Pg. 32). The study found that after the 7 years, participants experienced minimal to no

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