COUGH AND SPUTUM
Cough and coughing up phlegm are the common emphysema symptoms. The two symptoms occur in emphysema case due to inflammation and infection. Coughing up phlegm in the morning after waking up is typically in smokers. The sputum is white and foamy. If complicated by suppurative bacterial infection, the sputum appears yellow, sticky and smells foul-smelling. BREATHING DIFFICULTIES
Patient may experience shortness of breath only when they exercise, go upstairs, climb, do labor and have difficulties breathing when lying down. If emphysema is complicated by an acute attack of bronchitis, the increased inflammatory secretes will block the small airways. Lung ventilation will be further weakened and therefore they feel an increased shortness of breath and chest tightness. END STAGE SYMTOMS
When patients suffer from end stage symptoms they have already been hospitalized: - Weakness, fatigue, dizziness
- cough, expectoration, coughed up blood
- Stomach pain due to gastric mucosal damage stress ulcer of stomach and the resulting bleeding.
SIGNS OF EMPHYSEMA
- barred shaped chest
- decreased respiratory movement
- Distant heart sounds, decreased breath sounds
- Moist rale
- Abnormal heart sounds
HEALTH EFFECTS OF EMPHYSEMA
- Breathing difficulties and prevents adequate oxygen from reaching the bloodstream. HEART
-Increased blood pressure, heart enlargement and hear failure SKIN
- Healing time is almost doubled
- Skin may take on red, grey or yellowish cast
- chapped/dry lips
- Wrinkles around eyes and mouth become prominent
LIFESTYLE FACTORES CONTRIBUTING TO EMPHYSEMA
Indoor air pollution derived from coal burning, cooking fumes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are considered, as are the involvement of general air pollution, diet and nutrients, and history of lung diseases. On the basis of existing data, coal burning, volatile chemicals emitted from cooking oils and a history of lung disease are considered to significantly increase the risk of emphysema.
Stop smoking- smoking is the leading cause of emphysema and accounts for about 80% of emphysema cases. Most effective way to prevent emphysema is to stop smoking. Limit your exposure to secondhand smoking- being exposed to other peoples cigarette can increase your risk of developing emphysema i.e. ask you housemates not to smoke indoors and avoid smoky locations. Learn about and limit exposure to the environment- Pollutants that cause emphysema: *Study a list of indoor and outdoor pollutants. Learn about various impacts on lung heath. *Use safe wood burning practices. Reduce emissions by using high quality firewood and low-emission stoves. Visit a doctor if you have breathing difficulties. Emphysema is not invisible; a diagnosis will allow you to take immediate action. CONTROLLING EMPHYSEMA
-Quit smoking and limit your exposure to toxic air.
- Maintain a normal weight. Excess weight can cause the heart and lungs to work harder. - Eat a healthy diet of foods that are low in statured fats and rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains - Eating several meals a day eases digestion and makes breathing easier - Take steps to support your body’s immune system and reduce your risk of catching a cold or the flu, both which can impact your lungs. - Begin an exercise regimen. Talk to your doctor about recommendation for adivity levels and restrictions. Exercise helps to build endurance. - Special breathing exercise makes breathing easier by supporting your ability to bring more air into the lungs and forcing trapped air out.