Chronic myeloid leukemia
Chronic myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia (CML), also known as chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of blood cancer characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors is the main finding. It is a type of myeloproliferative disease associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. CML is now largely treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, dasatinib, or nilotinib, which have led to dramatically improved survival rates since their introduction in the last decade. Signs and symptoms
Patients are often asymptomatic at diagnosis, presenting incidentally with an elevated white blood cell count on a routine laboratory test. In this setting, CML must be distinguished from a leukemoid reaction, which can have a similar appearance on a blood smear. Symptoms of CML may include: enlarged spleen causing pain on the left side, malaise, joint and/or hip pain, low-grade fever, increased susceptibility to infections, anemia, and thrombocytopenia with easy bruising (although an increased platelet count (thrombocytosis) may also occur in CML). TUBERCULOMA OF BRAIN
Tuberculoma is a peculiar manifestation of tuberculosis which occurs in any solid organ of the body as well as in the lung. It is usually formed by conglomeration of several miliary tubercles, which form around the outer sheaths of the small cerebral blood vessels. The centre of the conglomeration becomes caseous. Caseous material gets inspissated and sometimes liquified. A thick capsule may form around these lesions. The relative frequency of tuberculomas in the brain varies from country to country and its recent...
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