Chromotography of Food Dye

Topics: Food coloring, E number, Dye Pages: 6 (599 words) Published: March 21, 2014


Introduction:
Today in lab I will separate mixtures of compounds into their constituent components using chromatography paper and an eluting solvent of salt water as well as rubbing alcohol.

Materials and Methods:
In this lab using the bag of FD&C dyes, bag of M&M’s, 2 packs of Kool-Aid , and a pack of Clover Valley store brand food coloring I am going to place a drop of each dye at the bottom of the chromatography paper. For the experiment with the rubbing alcohol I also placed a drop of each dye, but used a paper coffee filter. In order to get the dye color extracted from the M&M’s and Kool-Aid I added a little additional water. After applying all of the dyes and allowing them to dry completely I placed the chromatography paper in an eluting solvent of salt water, that I previously prepared and placed the coffee filters in the rubbing alcohol, paying careful attention to make sure that the area that the dye was placed on the paper was above the level of the solvent. I left the chromatography paper in the solvent until all the solvent had been absorbed, approximately 2 to 3 minutes I removed them from the solvent, marked the solvent line and set them aside to dry. Measuring to the nearest millimeter I measured the distance from my original dye mark to the end of the dye stain and from my original dye mark to the end of solvent front. With a formula of Rf = dye distance / solvent distance the following are the results of my lab.

FD&C Food Color, Grape Kool-Aid, & Strawberry Kool-Aid in Salt Water Color
B1
B2
R3
R40
Y5
Y6
UNK
KS
KG
Distance(mm)
3.2
0
.80
1.2
1.9
2.2
3.9
3.2
2.1
Solvent (mm)
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
Rf
.80
0
.20
.30
.48
.55
.98
.80
.53

Clover Valley Assorted Food Color and M&M’s in Salt Water Color
R
Y
G
B
M&M G
M&M Y
M&M B
M&M R
Distance (mm)
3.3
2.7
3.1
4.1
2.4
1.2
2.1
2.3
Solvent (mm)
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
Rf
.80
.66
.76
1
.59
.29
.51
.56

FD&C Food Color, Grape Kool-Aid, and Strawberry Kool-Aid in Rubbing Alcohol Color
B1
B2
R3
R40
Y5
Y6
UNK
KS
KG
Distance(mm)
1.5
1.3
1.1
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.4
0.5
1.1
Solvent (mm)
1.5
1.3
1.1
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.4
0.5
1.1
Rf
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Clover Valley Assorted Food Colors and M&M’s in Rubbing Alcohol Color
R
Y
G
B
M&M G
M&M Y
M&M B
M&M R
Distance (mm)
0.9
0.9
1.1
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.9
Solvent (mm)
0.9
0.9
1.1
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.9
Rf
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Discussion:
By comparing the color columns of the unknown dye sample and food items, to the color columns of the identified FD&C Food Colors I was able to conclude the following- Unknown dye is a compound of Red 40 and Blue 1

Strawberry Kool-Aid consists of Red 40
Grape Kool-Aid is a compound of Red 40 and Blue 1
Red M&M’s consist of Red 40
Blue M&M’s consist of Blue 1
Yellow M&M’s consist of Yellow 5
Green M&M’s are a compound of Yellow 5 and Blue 1
This lab taught us an approach in how we can separate the properties of a compound with the use of different solvents in an attempt to distinguish their individual properties.

Questions:
A. Because the dye from pen would also run with the solvent. B. Because you will not be able to get an accurate equation of compound distance divided by solvent distance if the solvent has reached the end of the paper. C. To make sure that the dye spots don’t wash away in the solvent and are spread throughout the paper during the mobile phase. D. You have to mark the solvent line when you remove the paper from the petri dish because the solvent will continue to spread throughout the paper as it dries.
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