Cholera In Haiti

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Cholera in Haiti

This paper will discuss the various different aspects of Cholera in Haiti and will outline the history of such a disease in terms of its epidemiology, natural reservoirs and vectors associated with it. The paper will describe how cholera is manifested, and what actions are recommended to manage, treat and help prevent the disease, and the important role nurses’ play in this process.
History and Characteristics of the Vibrio Cholerae Micro-organism
Over the centuries, populations all over the world have been affected by devastating outbreaks of cholera (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). Some records go as far back as Hippocrates and Galen times, and describe an illness
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It is caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae that is a non-spore forming, curved rod that is oxidase positive (Chin et al., 2011). Vibrio cholerae has a type of semi-rigid cell wall that is peptidoglycan based which is enclosed within a capsule made of rigid accumulation and composed of gylcocalyx (Shier, Butler, & Lewis, 2011). The plasma membrane of V. cholerae is located beneath the cell wall, encloses the cytoplasm, and is made up of a phosphollipid bilayer (Shier et al., 2011). Its main function is to transport molecules in and out of the cell (Shier et al., 2011). Cholera is usually transmitted through contaminated water and if left untreated it can spread in a rapid manner (Chin et al., 2011). The Vibrio cholerae found in Haiti, is the El Tor O1 strain, which is the same strain that was identified during the Bangladesh Cholera infection in both 2002 and 2008 (Chin et al., …show more content…
Within 24 hours of these first cases being reported, the public hospital of Hôpital Saint Nicolas, in the city of Saint Marc, was overwhelmed, with more than 500 cases reported and more than 100 deaths (Chery et al., 2012). Since this initial confirmation, all ten regions within Haiti have since been effected by Cholera but the worst reported areas of the outbreak include; Centre, Nord-Est, Artibonite and Ouest region which encompasses the capital city of Port-au-Prince, Nord, Nord-Ouest and Grande Anse and Sud (Barzilay et al., 2013). According to the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population, “as of August 4th, 2013, 669,396 cases and 8,217 deaths have been reported since the epidemic began in Haiti in October 2010” (CDC, 2013). According to the CDC “Of the cases reported, 371,099 (55.4%) were hospitalized, and within the country’s capital, Port-au-Prince, 180,439 cases have been reported since the beginning of the outbreak” (CDC, 2013).
The Haitian epidemic unfortunately has not been contained just within Haiti alone, but has spread to Haiti’s neighbouring country, the Dominican Republic. One month after Vibrio cholera being identified in Haiti, the disease had spread to

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