Choctaw Indians

Topics: Native Americans in the United States, Choctaw, Oklahoma Pages: 8 (2031 words) Published: October 3, 2014
The Native Americans are an important part of culture in the United States, and have been living on this land for thousands of years. The Native American cultures have strongly influenced the United States in many different ways during today’s society. In 1783, the United States was a new nation with about 3 million people living, for the most part, the Native Americas controlled most lands west of the Appalachian Mountains forming tribes, building lives for themselves. Native Americans are composed of numerous, distinct tribes and ethnic groups. The Choctaw, being one of the many tribes, expanded among the Mississippi River Valley after being removed and became what is now known as the first tribe of America’s Five Civilized Tribes.

The Choctaws were the first Native Americans forced under the Indian Removal Act. The Indian Removal Act was a law passed by Congress on May 28, 1830. It authorized the president, Andrew Jackson at the time, to negotiate with Indian tribes in the Southern United States to move to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their home lands. The Choctaw were evacuated because the U.S. wanted to expand territory making it available for settlement by European Americans, to save the tribe from extinction, and to require their natural resources that they were in need of, the Choctaw negotiated the largest area and most desirable lands in Indian Territory.

Before the Civil War, the Choctaw Tribe signed over nine treaties with the United States, the first treaty, the Treaty of Hopewell which was signed in 1786. This treaty helped set boundaries and establish the peace between two nations. During these years land was the most valuable asset, which the Native Americans held in collective stewardship. The Treaty of Fort Adams was the second treaty, and it was signed on December 17, 1801. At this point in time large amounts of land began to be taken from the Choctaw Nation. As a part of this treaty, the United States secured the right to construct a road through Choctaw country from Natchez, Mississippi, to Nashville, Tennessee. Ten months after the second treaty was signed, a third treaty was put into action. The Treaty of Fort Confederation, the meaning of this treaty was to clarify and satisfactorily declare the boundaries of the Choctaw Nation, in result, lost them 50,000 acres, declaring all eastern boundaries secured by the United States. On August 31, 1803, the United States signed the fourth treaty. The Treaty of Hoe Buckintoopa, which ceded 853,760 acres to the United States in exchange for clearing debt by the Choctaw Nation through a trading company. In addition, the two chiefs who signed the treaty received an arrangement of items for hunting and survival. This technique was used repeatedly by the United States, in order to gain Indian land. The Treaty of Mount Dexter, the fifth treaty, was signed on November 16, 1805. During this treaty the same persuasive method used throughout the fourth treaty is used at this time in order to gain land. The remaining strip of Choctaw southern territory is ceded to the United States, 4,142,720 acres, but added to the agreement is that the U.S. government agrees to pay $48,000 per year to be distributed throughout the chiefs. October 24, 2816, the sixth treaty was signed, the Treaty of Fort St. Stephens. This treaty declared that the Choctaw land east of the Tombigbee River, approx. 10,000 acres was to be ceded to the United States. The Choctaw were to receive $6,000 per year for twenty years, plus an additional $10,000 to be spent on merchandise. The Choctaw decided to sign the treaty in order to create and maintain Choctaw schools. The seventh treaty, the Treaty with the Choctaws of 1820, is a treaty of friendship between the United States and Choctaw Nation. The Treaty of Washington City, signed on January 20, 1825, in Washington D.C. became the eighth treaty. The treaty was prepared to make an effort to correct the mistakes...

Cited: Johnson, Michael, and Duncan Clarke. Native tribes of the Southeast. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library, 2004. Print
Lambert, Valerie. Choctaw Nation: A Story of American Indian Resurgence. U. of Nebraska Press, 2007. Print.
“Choctaw Clans.” Choctaw Clans. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 July 2014.
Kidwell, Clara Sue. The Choctaws in Oklahoma: from tribe to nation, 1855-1970. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007. Print.
Morrison, James D., and James C. Milligan. The social history of the Choctaw Nation, 1865-1907. Durant, Ok: Creative Informatics, 1987. Print.
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