CHinese CUlture

Topics: China, Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty Pages: 6 (1936 words) Published: May 3, 2014
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures.[1][2] The area in which the culture is dominant covers a large geographical region in eastern Asiawith customs and traditions varying greatly between provinces, cities, and even towns. Important components of Chinese culture include literature,music, visual arts, martial arts, cuisine, religion etc. dentity[edit]

Today there are 56 distinct recognized ethnic groups in China.[3] In terms of numbers however, Han Chinese is by far the largest group. Throughout history, many groups have merged into neighboring ethnicities or disappeared. At the same time, many within the Han identity have maintained distinct linguistic and regional cultural traditions. The term Zhonghua Minzu has been used to describe the notion of Chinese nationalism in general.[citation needed] Much of the traditional identity within the community has to do with distinguishing the family name. Regional[edit]

Main article: Three ancestral treasures
Traditional Chinese Culture covers large geographical territories, where each region is usually divided into distinct sub-cultures. Each region is often represented by three ancestral items. For example Guangdong is represented by chenpi, aged ginger and hay.[4][5] Others include ancient cities like Lin'an (Hangzhou), which include tea leaf,bamboo shoot trunk and hickory nut.[6] Such distinctions give rise to the old Chinese proverb: "十里不同風,百里不同俗/十里不同风,百里不同俗" (Shí lǐ bùtóng fēng, bǎi lǐ bùtóng sú), literally "the wind varies within ten li, customs vary within a hundred li.""" Society[edit]

Gold detailing on a throne used by theQianlong Emperor. The Chinese dragon was a symbol reserved for the Emperor of Chinaor high level imperial families during the Qing Dynasty Structure[edit]
Main article: Social structure of China
Since the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors period, some form of Chinese monarch has been the main ruler above all. Different periods of history have different names for the various positions within society. Conceptually each imperial or feudal period is similar, with the government and military officials ranking high in the hierarchy, and the rest of the population under regular Chinese law.[7] From the late Zhou Dynasty (1046–256 BCE) onwards, traditional Chinese society was organized into a hierarchic system of socio-economic classes known as the four occupations. However, this system did not cover all social groups while the distinctions between all groups became blurred ever since the commercialization of Chinese culture in the Song Dynasty (960–1279 CE). Ancient Chinese education also has a long history; ever since the Sui Dynasty (581–618 CE) educated candidates prepared for the Imperial examinations which drafted exam graduates into government as scholar-bureaucrats. This led to the creation of a meritocracy, although success was available only to males who could afford test preparation. Imperial examinations required applicants to write essays and demonstrate mastery of the Confucian classics. Those who passed the highest level of the exam became elite scholar-officials known as jinshi, a highly esteemed socio-economic position. Trades and crafts were usually taught by a shifu. The female historian Ban Zhaowrote the Lessons for Women in the Han Dynasty and outlined the four virtues women must abide to, while scholars such as Zhu Xi and Cheng Yi would expand upon this. Chinese marriage and Taoist sexual practices are some of the rituals and customs found in society. Values[edit]

Main articles: Chinese philosophy and Religion in China
Most social values are derived from Confucianism and Taoism. The subject of which school was the most influential is always debated as many concepts such as Neo-Confucianism, Buddhismand many others have come about. Reincarnation and other rebirth concept is a reminder of the connection between real-life and the after-life. In Chinese business culture, the concept of guanxi, indicating the primacy...
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