China and Japan

Topics: Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II, Republic of China Pages: 10 (2330 words) Published: May 28, 2014

The purpose of this research paper was to explore in depths of the time period that affected China during the years of the Japanese invasion and annexation from 1931-1937. The whole time frame of Japanese annexation actually began from 1894, the first Sino-Japanese War until 1945, when Japan lost World War II. However, I have decided to focus on the years ranging from September 1931, invasion of Manchuria until December 1937, Nanking Massacre. Through this research paper, I plan to understand how foreign powers (Western and European) interventions affected or did not the outcomes and study the different tactics that were used in conquest of the different Chinese cities. I will research on the following incidents: Mukden Incident 1931, Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the Chinese boycott of Japanese goods and “Battle of Shanghai” 1932, the puppet emperor of Manchuria, Pu Yi, 1934, “China incident” and the Nanking Massacre December 1937.

Imperialism is defined as the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring the holding colonies and dependencies. During the 19th and 20th centuries, imperialism was a popular culture throughout Europe, and was practiced periodically throughout history. China and Japan is separated geographically by the East China Sea. The two countries have been through strain and bloodshed throughout history. During 1931, Japan wanted to exercise imperialism and colonialism influenced by the European nations and started out for her conquest in Asia. I expect to find out whether if foreign interventions could have stopped Japan’s conquest prior to its loss in World War II and whether there is a correlation of tactics used in annexing China.

Literature Review
The Conspiracy at Mukden resulted in the invasion of Manchuria, North East part of China known today as Dongbei. It is a highly controversial issue because of the lack of confirmation due to destroyed government evidence from B-29 raids and evidence destroyed by the Japanese themselves. Japan claimed that Chinese soldiers had blown up the train tracks on the South Manchuria Railway’s main line near Mukden, known today as Shenyang, and that Japan’s Kwantung army responded as self-defense.1 However, the Chinese claim that on the night of September 18, 1931, the Kwantung Army under the command of Lt. Kawamoto orchestrated the explosion on the railroad outside the city of Mukden, known today as Shenyang. Following the incident, the Kwantung Army invaded and was in full control of the city by the following morning 3 P.M. According to the League of Nations investigation observations, it concluded that the events that occurred on the night of September 18, 1931: the Japanese had premeditated the events and acted accordingly, there was no probable evidence that the Chinese had any plans to attack the Japanese, the damage from the explosion was minimal with the train arriving on time from Changchun to arrive on time at 10:30 P.M., and that military actions from the Japanese could not be accounted for actions as self-defense.2 It is theorized that the events that occurred in Mukden and explosion was the beginning of Japanese annexation of China. It is also theorized that with the United States and most European nations struggling with a deep depression allowed all the necessary conditions for Japan’s annexation in Asia without any interference from the Western world to stop her.3 Following the annexation of Mukden, Japan created a puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932. The Japanese placed Pu Yi, who was the last emperor of China’s Qing dynasty, as a puppet emperor. Expansionism was seen as necessary for Japan and hence the creation of the “independent” state of Manchukuo it allowed Japanese troops to be stationed and justified Japan’s occupation of Manchuria. Also, with the railways and rich natural resources that it offered, it was seen to best for industrialization...

Cited: Askew, David. "New Research on the Nanjing Incident :: JapanFocus." New Research on the Nanjing Incident :: JapanFocus. Accessed April 19, 2014.
Brandon, James R. Kabuki 's Forgotten War: 1931-1945. Honolulu: University of Hawai 'i Press, 2009.
Crowley, James B. "A Reconsideration of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident." The Journal of Asian Studies 22, no. 3 (May 1963): 277-91. doi:10.2307/2050187.
Hsuan-T 'ung, Ching. From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Y. Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1979.
Li, Fei Fei, Robert Sabella, and David Liu. Nanking 1937: Memory and Healing. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2002.
Steele, A. T. Shanghai and Manchuria, 1932: Recollections of a War Correspondent. Tempe: Center for Asian Studies, Arizona State University, 1977.
The China Post. "The Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937." The Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937. July 7, 2009. Accessed April 17, 2014.
Xiang, Ah. "The Communist-Instigated Marco Polo Bridge Incident." In Commemoration of China 's 15-Year Resistance War. August 25, 2012. Accessed April 20, 2014.
Yoshihashi, Takehiko. Conspiracy at Mukden: The Rise of the Japanese Military. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963.
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