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Children and young peoples workforce

By Rachelkelley1 Oct 24, 2014 3934 Words

[CYP Core 3.1.1] Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth - 19 years. This is an explanation of the sequence and rate of development from birth to nineteen years. When giving an example of the rates of different types of development it must always be taken in to account that children develop at different times and at their own pace, any information provided here should only be used as a general guide. The difference between the rate and sequence of development

A child's development sometimes follows a definite sequence this is mostly seen in a child's physical development for example: Babies will usually start sitting up, followed by crawling. They will then use their arms to pull themselves up to standing, then on to walking and so on. While the sequence of development is typical in all children what is seen to differ is the speed or rate of development. This is how some babies will sit at seven months and others will learn to sit much later. It is important when working with children and young people to be aware of both the sequence and rate of development in each of the developmental areas. Having knowledge of the sequence of development in children and young people is needed to plan activities effectively. Becoming familiar with the rate of development is essential for early year’s practitioners. A child may have a developmental delay and therefore It is crucial for any early intervention strategies to be put in to place as soon as possible giving the child the best possible start in life. Babies are usually born at around forty weeks gestation babies born earlier at around thirty seven weeks are classed as premature, premature babies are likely to need a little extra time to reach the development levels as a full term infant. All babies are born with a set of reflexes that are linked to survival these are actions performed without thinking. Examples of these reflexes are: Swallowing and sucking: These reflexes enable a baby to feed and to swallow milk. Rooting reflex: This reflex allows the baby to find the mothers nipple or the teat of a bottle if you touch the babies check or mouth the baby will move it head to find the milk. Grasp Reflex: babies will automatically grasp on to an object or finger that has touched the palm of their hand. Startle reflex: When babies hear a loud noise or a flash of bright light they will throw their arms out and clench their fists. Walking and standing reflex: when babies are held upright with their feet touching a firm surface they usually make stepping movements. CHILD DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE 0-19 YEARS

Birth-3 months 3-6 months 6-9 months 9-12 months 1-2 years
Physical At the age of one month babies start to look less curled up and the startle reflex will lesson, Eyes will start to follow moving objects but this may only be for a few seconds. At three months babies will be able to turn their heads to follow a moving object. They will be able to hold a rattle and may be able to rest their weight on their hands. By four to six months babies will start to roll from front to back and will be able to raise their arms and legs in the air whilst on their tummies. Babies at around six months will be able to sit unsupported for only a few seconds, By nine months he should be able to sit totally unsupported for several minutes. Babies at around this age will start to crawl. Babies at around nine months will pull themselves up to standing using your hands or lower pieces of furniture and this helps them to learn to stand alone and then too taking their first few steps. Children are mostly walking by the age of fifteen months. Will still be using his hands to stand up at but by the age of two he will be able to get up without using his hands. They will love to climb using furniture. Will attempt to kick a ball.

Speech, language and communication Babies cry to communicate their needs, from the first cry you hear when their born they are trying to communicate with you, By six weeks old they will give their first smile and start to coo. By the ages of three months they will be smiling at you and other people and will be laughing, squealing and cooing spontaneously. At five to six months will start to ‘talk’ to toys.

They will understand that they are the ones creating the sounds and will try out lots of different types for example blowing raspberries. They will start to babble and then stop and listen, waiting for you to respond showing the first signs of structured communication. They will start to understand some words that are spoken to them for example ‘no’ and ‘bye bye.’ They will probably be getting a grasp of how to make the sounds of vowels and consonants work together, saying things like ‘mamma or bubba,’ repeating them over and over until they have a good grasp of them. At one year’s old the child will start to develop their language and will understand many new words. Their speech will be developing but you may not be able to understand them yet, By eighteen months they will be using six to twenty words. Will start to combine two words together for example “more” could change to “want more”. By two years they will have a vocabulary capable of expressing up to one hundred words and will be able to tell you what they wants for example, “milk,” “biscuit”. Cognitive A Baby’s cognitive development starts by recognising their mother’s voice and smell, by three months old babies will start to take an interest in mobiles and other things around them. Between the ages of three to six months they will start to classify objects based on size, shape and colour. They will love to look at their hands pressing palms together and clasping them. Babies at around six months will start to remember things however the memories only last for around a week or two. They will attempt to reach out and grasp on to objects transferring them from one hand to another whilst learning about them. There are able to identify the people around them by name and will point to them if asked. Other gestures will also start to be used for example waving goodbye. This is also the time the pincer grasp, is learnt, the ability to hold a small object between the thumb and index finger. In the child’s second year they still have no perceptive on the world, they learn about objects at ground level, They are starting to categories, placing objects in to understandable groups. They begin to think before they act for example remembering when things are hot. Make believe play will also begin at this time for example playing on telephone and dressing up. Social, emotional and behavioural Whist holding and feeding the baby you will notice that they stare intently at you. They will start to settle into a routine at around four weeks of age. Smiles of contentment will begin around five to six weeks old. Babies from around three months will start to cry less and will start to sleep through the night. They will start to show signs of enjoying different activities for example bath time. At around four months of age babies they will start being able to read some expressions and will show concern if you look cross or upset. At the ages of around eight months babies will start to have tantrums, They can be clingy to adult carers and wary of strangers. Babies at this age will start to want to try feeding themselves and drink from a cup with a lid. Babies will learn to cuddle by the age of ten months, and will start to recognise their own feelings, the difference between feeling hungry or lonely and they have learnt by recognising that the parent responds to their needs and will start to let the carer know they want feeding or a cuddle. Between the ages of one to two years a child is starting to learn, understand and manage his feelings. Relationships with other children will also start to develop. Smiling at other children or offering them a toy. They will also show signs of contagious distress when other people are crying they may start crying too. Children at this age start to be descriptive about how they feel for example saying “ouch” if they hurt themselves. 2-3 years 3-5 years 5-8 years 8-11 years 11-19 years

Physical By the age of two children will probably have started running, without bumping in to things and learning to stop when needed they may still be using their hands to stand up at but by the age of two they will be able to get up without using their hands. They are capable of walking up and downstairs whilst holding on to banisters but will put both feet securely on the step before tackling the next one. They will love to climb using furniture. Will attempt to kick a ball. By this age children will be able to walk in a straight line, backwards and up and down stairs. They can manage climbing frames with ease and can attempt to hop on one foot. They will uses paints, scissors, pencils, and crayons to purposefully create shapes, faces, and letters and should have day and night bladder/bowel control. They will be able to dress, undress and feed themselves and can do simple chores with assistance and direction. At this age children gain up to 2.3 kilograms (five pounds) per year they will be growing around 8 centimetres per year. They will be able to catch and throw a medium-sized ball from 1.5 metres (five feet) away and can manage playground equipment on their own, such as pumping legs on a swing they have now developed enough muscle coordination to climb, swim, and skate. From age seven weight gain speeds up and children will sleep up to 11 hours a night, they will begin to ride a bicycle without stabilizers, Milk teeth will fall out and permanent teeth begin to appear. Girls are generally as much as 2 years ahead of boys in physical maturity. Some girls may begin to menstruate and breast buds can start to appear. (between 8 and 12 years of age),

Children at this age will Increase in body strength and hand dexterity, they will have Improved coordination and reaction time. Since some adolescents begin puberty during middle childhood, children need access to information about sexuality and puberty prior to the middle-school year Puberty typically starts for girls between ages 8 and 13, and for boys between ages 9 and 14, and may continue until age 19 or older. Girls

(13-18) breast development
(11-14) Development of pubic hair
(average age, 10) Growth spurt begins, which adds inches to height and hip circumference (average age, 12, normal age range between 9 and 16) Menses begins, enlargement of ovaries, uterus, labia, and clitoris; thickening of the endometrium and vaginal mucosa appearance of underarm hair (13-16 )Dental changes, which include jaw growth and development of molars, development of body odour and acne Boys

Testicular enlargement, beginning as early as 9-½ years of age (10-15) Appearance of pubic hair Onset of sperm found in the ejaculate. (11-14 )Lengthening of genitals
Rapid enlargement of the larynx, pharynx, and lungs, which can lead to alterations in vocal quality ( voice breaking) (average age, 14), Changes in physical growth first seen in the hands and feet, followed by the

arms and legs, and then the trunk and chest weight gain and increases in lean body mass and muscle mass (11-16) Doubling of heart size and vital lung capacity, increase in blood pressure and blood volume, growth of facial and body hair, which may not be completed until the mid-20s Dental changes, which include

jaw growth and development of
molars, development of body odour and acne
Speech, language and communication By two and a half years they could say about 500 words, and understand hundreds more. By age three, they might use nearly 1000 words and will still be learning new words every day. They start to understand instructions and begin answering questions Children at this age begin to use sentence structure – for example, word endings (‘I go’ becomes ‘I’m going’), past tense (walked, fished) and plurals (cats, horses). Uses k, g, t, d, n, w, h sounds By three years children begin correctly using plurals, pronouns, and prepositions more consistently. They will frequently ask "why" and "what." Often using complete sentences of 3 to 4 words. By four years they can use the past tense of words. They will be using sentences of 5 to 6 words. They can describe something that has happened to them or tell a short story. By five years they can speak clearly enough to be intelligible to strangers most of the time and usually can carry on a conversation with another person. They will often call people (or objects) by their relationship to others, such as “Harry’s ball” Can define words such as "spoon" and "cat." Between the ages of five and eight a child's vocabulary is increasing to approximately 2,000 words they can compose sentences with five or more words and will be using complete 5-8 word sentences using many multi-syllabic words. They can judge correctness of sentences and use past and future tense. All speech sounds will be fully established by the end of age 7-8 They will understands more complex directions and will understand the names of objects and their function. Comprehension and use of language becomes more sophisticated and children may share opinions often, they may also pick up on words that peers use. Children at this age are able to explore the responses and attitudes of others through language. They can express their own opinion with supporting ideas. Children of this age enjoy sharing their opinions of movies or recently read books. They are capable of briefly speaking to the class on a researched topic and can use notes during a presentation speech. Children at this age are describing events and things with great detail. They can recite poems and debate issues. A child of this age has progressed from verbally describing to being able to verbally give an explanation. At this age the child essentially communicate as adults, with increasing maturity throughout Secondary school. They comprehend abstract language, such as idioms, figurative language, and metaphors. Explanations may become more figurative and less literal. They should be able to process texts and abstract meaning, relate word meanings and contexts, understand punctuation, and form complex syntactic structures. However, communication is more than the use and understanding of words; it also includes how teens think of themselves, their peers, and authority figures. As teens seek independence from family and establish their own identity, they begin thinking abstractly and become concerned with moral issues. All of this shapes the way they think and communicate. Cognitive By the age of two and a half children will be able show a preference over using their left or right hand when drawing. They will hold a pencil with a better grasp and will copy a flat line and a circle. They will love to paint but will be unable to produce recognisable pictures. They may be able to draw a head on a person but other detail will be missing. Understand consequences of their actions (if they run on a wet surface they would fall). By the age of three they will be able to complete simple puzzles. Will be able to stay focused on an activity for periods of between five and fifteen minutes longer if the activity holds their interest. Children at this age always ask "Why?" They are using longer sentences and grammar starts to improve. They will Start to understand the difference between real and imaginary, will listens to, and understands, short stories, sings simple songs and can recites rhymes from memory. They will have a very active imagination and engages in fantasy play they will correctly names some colour, understands the concept of counting, knows few number they can understands the concept of ‘same’ and ‘different between the ages of four and five they can understands the concept of time, retells a story from a picture book with reasonable accuracy, can tell what will happen next., names some letters, copies then later prints own name and can sorts objects in more than one way (by shape, then by size Can count up to 10 objects at one time Know left and right Begin to reason and argue; uses words like why and because Can categorize objects: “These are toys; these are books.” Understand concepts like yesterday, today, and tomorrow

Can copy complex shapes, such as a diamond Should be sounding out simple words like “hang”, “neat”, “jump” and “sank” Are able to sit at a desk, follow teacher instructions, and independently do simple in-class assignments. Develop a longer attention span are willing to take on more responsibility (i.e. chores) Understand fractions and the concept of space, understand money. Can tell time Can name months and days of week in order Enjoy reading a book on their own Shows interest in reading fictional stories, magazines, and how-to projects books. May develop special interest in collections or hobbies

May become more project and goal oriented
May enjoy games with more complex rules
Things tend to be black or white, right or wrong, great or disgusting, fun or boring Is learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do
May often say, "That's not fair!" and does not accept rules that she did not help make. Developing advanced reasoning skills. Advanced reasoning skills include the ability to think about multiple options and possibilities. It includes a more logical thought process and the ability to think about things hypothetically. It involves asking and answering the question, “what if…?” Developing abstract thinking skills. Abstract thinking means thinking about things that cannot be seen, heard, or touched. Examples include things like faith, trust, beliefs and spirituality. Developing the ability to think about thinking is a process known as “meta cognition.” Meta-cognition allows teens to think about how they feel and what they are thinking. It involves being able to think about how one is perceived by others. It can also be used to develop strategies, also known as mnemonic devices, for improving learning. Remembering the notes on the lines of a music staff (e, g, b, d and f) through the phrase “every good boy does fine” is an example of such a mnemonic device. Social, emotional and behavioural

Children at this age are starting to learn, understand and manage their feelings. At times this may be over whelming and they could respond to conflict by hitting or biting. Screaming or crying. They will be in a conflict with their independence wanting to try things on their own and five minutes later asking for help this is all part of their development. They will be happy when familiar adults are around them and use these people as their base when exploring the world around them coming back to the careers at time to time. They will also start to become aware of others emotions and how they react to things looking often to check the expression on your face to see how you feel about things, looking for your approval or a warning. Relationships with other children will also start to develop. Smiling at other children or offering them a toy. At this age children are increasingly able to identify and name their own feelings. They will use words more than actions to express feelings. Fears include real (the dark, animals, and thunderstorms) and imaginary (monsters, ghosts) subjects. They may start to exaggerate and tells lies. They could be fascinated body functions. At around this age they will develop a sense of humour. They will start to share and take turns. And during conflict they may lash out less but name-calls more. They will enjoy playing with other children and pretend play will become more imaginative and theme-based. They may have an imaginary friend. They will love to chat and enjoy group activities and games. Are willing to play cooperatively, take turns, and share may start to show jealousy toward siblings. Will start to understand their own feelings and will be able to use words to describe them showing empathy and offer to help when they see another in distress. They will understand the consequences of their actions. They will enjoy playing alone, but prefer to play with friends. They will be able to dress themselves. By seven or eight years old they will show a competitive spirit when playing games. They will make friends with children of the opposite gender and may show an interest in joining a club or sports team. They can distinguish between fantasy and reality and are able to do pretend play with another child or group of children they can help out with chores at home, such as clearing the table after a meal or tidying up personal belongings. Likes rituals, rules, secrets, codes, and made-up languages They may form more complex friendships, interests in competitive sports may also develop. They will have better control of anger. Most children of this age prefers spending more time with friends than with parents, they may experience peer pressure and will be facing more academic challenges at school, A sense of their own personal identity develops and they may start to feel awkward or strange about their bodies, realisation grows that parents are not perfect And occasional rudeness with parents occurs often complains that parents interfere The nature of teenage brain development means that teenagers are likely to seek out new experiences and engage in more risk-taking behaviour. They will start developing a stronger individual set of values and morals. Learning that they’re responsible for their own actions, decisions and consequences. They will be Influenced more by friends, especially when it comes to behaviour, sense of self and self-esteem, they will be starting to develop and explore a sexual identity. They may start to have relationships and can show strong feelings and intense emotions at different times. Moods may seem unpredictable. They may be more self conscious, especially about physical appearance and changes Recourses used

Pg.50 Children and young people’s workforce Penny Tassoni
Pg.51 Children and young people’s workforce Penny TassoniPg.60 Children and young people’s workforce Penny TassoniDevelopment sheets (Brighter Futures)

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