Child mortality in Madhya Pradesh : a cross sectional analysis The millennium development goals (MDGs) have been widely accepted as a framework for improving health and welfare worldwide. Child mortality is one of the most crucial and avoidable global health concerns. In many low income countries, 10-20% of children die before reaching 5 years of age . The child mortality in MDG (to reduce the under 5 mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015) is formulated as a national average.(UN- child mortality report -2012) Child mortality, also known as under-5 mortality, refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five. In 2011, 6.9 million children under five died, down from 7.6 million in 2010, 8.1 million in 2009, and 12.4 million in 1990. Reduction of child mortality is the fourth of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals.(UNICEF-Press release-Sept17-2010) As per the Millennium Development 4 Goals (MDG) India has to reduce its Child Mortality Rate (CMR) by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. It implies that India has to reduce its under five mortality rate to 38 per 1000 live births by 2015 (UNICEF SOWC 2008) to achieve the MDGs. However, the office of the registrar general of India has recently cautioned that, after a rapid decline during 1980-90, the IMR in India has stagnated since 1993 at the level of 72 [GoI 2000] This means that the programs which addressed the problem of child mortality (reproductive and child health program, immunization program, ICDS) were no longer effective in further reducing the IMR, and a larger proportion of infant deaths were now contributed by neonatal deaths because this component is influenced little by the current programs [GoI 2000]. India has made progress in the reduction of child mortality with the average annual rate of reduction in U5 mortality between 1990 and 2006 being around 2.6 per cent. If India is to reach the MDG Goal of 38 by 2015, the average annual rate of reduction over the next nine years must be far higher, or around 7.6 per cent. (Source: UNICEF, SOWC 2008) Of the 26 million children born in India every year, approximately 1.83 million children die before their fifth birthday in India. “What these aggregate figures do not reveal are the huge inequities in mortality rates across the country, within States and between them, as well as between children in urban and rural areas,” Thomas Chandy , CEO, Save the children, said.
The under 5 mortality rate in Kerala is 14 deaths per 1000 live births. This stands at a sharp contrast to Madhya Pradesh at 92 per 1000 or 91 per 1000 for Uttar Pradesh. (Save the children.in) In this study we are evaluating and presenting infant and child mortality and their determinants for India as a whole and for individual state- Madhya Pradesh, using data from the National Family Health Survey. We are estimating Neonatal (first month), post neonatal (age 1–11 months), infant (first year), and child (age 1–4 years) mortality , as well as the effects of Socioeconomic background characteristics, demographic characteristics, and Mother’s health-care behavior, using information from women’s birth histories pertaining to children born during the 12-year period before the survey. In the closely related study project of Norway India Partnership Initiative , the initiative aims to achieve measurable outcomes in line with the fourth ''millennium development goals'' (MDG-4) including a sustained routine immunization coverage rate at 80 per cent or more from 2007 onwards and saving an additional 0.5 million under-5 children each year from 2009. The health status of its population reflects the socio-economic development of a state. Health status is shaped by a variety of factors — level of income and standard of living, housing, sanitation, water supply, education, employment, health consciousness and personal hygiene, and the coverage, availability, accessibility, acceptability and affordability of health services. The...
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