Dinoy, Dion Janel
Macaraeg, Reina Marie C.
Today, throughout the world, around 215 million children work, many full-time. They do not go to school and have little or no time to play. Many do not receive proper nutrition or care. They are denied the chance to be children. More than half of them are exposed to the worst forms of child labor such as work in hazardous environments, slavery, or other forms of forced labor, illicit activities including drug trafficking and prostitution, as well as involvement in armed conflict.
Child labor is an insidious evil. Leaving aside pathological cases of child abuse and abandonment, it exists because it is the best response people can come up with to intolerable circumstances.
Child labor, however, is a broad term that encompasses a diversity of activities and working conditions, thus the belief that child labor is detrimental to human capital accumulation, may or may not be generally true, and, even if accurate, at what age does this adverse effect cease to exist, and does the initial occupation matter, are open questions. Studying and providing robust estimates of the effects of starting to work as a child on adult earnings will allow future studies of child labor to be informed by this research.
Though it is generally assumed to be detrimental, the potential effects of child labor on adult earnings are potentially twofold. On one hand, child labor can be detrimental through the hindering of the acquisition of formal education, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and causing irreparable damage to health, reputation or other things that effect adult human capital, which could lead to lower wages in the adult labor market. On the other hand, there may be positive pecuniary benefits to young labor: vocational training, learning by doing, general workplace
Bibliography: Barboza, D., China says Abusive Child Labor Ring is exposed, http://www.nytimes.com/ 2008/05/01/ World/asia/ 01china.html ?pagewanted=all, May 1, 2008. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Jackson, S.L., The 3 Basic Types of Descriptive Research, Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 3rd edition, 2009. Castillo, J.J., Research Population, www.experiment-resources.com/research-population.html, 2009. _Child Labor, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/child_labour, http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/ article.jsp?id=5428, http://www. Highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3402800094.html, July 28, 2011. _Child Labour in the Philippines, http://rachanadeshpande.articlealley.com/cild-labor-in-the- philippines-666377.html, October 15, 2008. Cooper, B.T., Murphy, M.D., CHEM 3111, wiki.answers.com/Q/what_is_statistical_ treatment_in_a_thesis, 2005. Corpuz, N., ABS-CBN News Report on Child Labor, http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/depth/04/05 /11/child-workers-philippines-number.24-m, August 17, 2010. Czajkowksi, J., Child Labor in the Philippines, http://inseslnews. Org/viewarticle.php?id=343, November, 2010. Deshpande, R., Child Labor in the Philippines, http://www.articlealley.com/article_666377_ 17.html, http://www.angelfive.com/ab2/relgroup/phil.html, October 15, 2008. Dudette, D., Nike, Inc., http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nike,-Inc., July31, 2011. Faleiro, S., Children Whoe sell Themselves, http://wwwnytimes.com/2011/09/07/opinion/07iut= edfeiro07.html?r=1, September 6, 2011. Foddy, W.H., Theory and practice in social research, en.wiki.org/wiki/questionnaire, 1994. Lester, S., International Economic Law and Policy Blog (Child Labor), http://worldtradelaw.typead.com/ielpblog/2010/02/in-defense-of-the-child-labor.html, February 15, 2010. Montana, P., Charnor, B., Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, http://.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow’s hierarchyofneeds, October 11, 2011. _StatPac Inc., Survey Sampling Methods, www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.html, 2012. _Wikimedia Foundation Inc., Descriptive Research, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/descriptive_research, 2011. _Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Nonprobability Sampling Strategies Convenience Sampling, www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/workshops/res_metho d/sampling/sampling_32.html, 2005.