0 to 28 days, newborn, 28 days to 2 years, infant, 2 to 6 years, early childhood, 6 to 13 years and childhood, the term preadolescent is also commonly used. Beginning at 13 years of age, puberty marks a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Functioning of the hormonal system that will provoke the peak of physical growth, maturation of the reproductive system and physical changes all occur. The great cultural differences that exist among countries as well as the significant physical and emotional changes involved in passing from childhood to adulthood have brought attention to the need to find a consensual definition, a global reference that is valid and acceptable to all and that allows each child to be equally taken into account, regardless of where in the world she is. The United Nations thus drew up a definition of the child so that all countries having ratified the international Convention of the Rights of the Child share the same reference, which is laid down in Article 1 of the Convention: A child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
This definition of a child will not be acceptable if the child’s country deemed him or her to be an adult at an early age, which is rare. According to UNICEF estimates, 130 million children are born each year. In many countries, they represent more than 50% of the population.
Further, a child has his or her own rights. As young and helpless, we cannot just take advantage of it. This includes anti-child labor. According to the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, a child should not work before a minimum age and never when that would hinder your health, and your moral and physical development.