Chhattisgarh is a state in Central India. The state was formed on November 1, 2000 by partitioning 16Chhattisgarhi-speaking south-eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. Raipur is the capital of Chhattisgarh, which is the 10th largest state in India, with an area of 135,190 km2 (52,200 sq mi). By population, it ranks as the 16th most-populated state of the nation. It is an important electricity and steel-producing state of India. Chhattisgarh accounts for 15% of the total steel produced in the country. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Maharashtra in the west, Andhra Pradesh in the south, Orissa in the east, Jharkhand in the northeast and Uttar Pradesh in the north.
Ancient and medieval history
In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshin-Kausal. This area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalchuri and Nagvanshi rulers dominated this region. Kalchuris also ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1741 AD. Modern history
The area constituting the new state merged into Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 1956, under the States Re-organization Act and remained a part of that state for 44 years. Prior to its becoming a part of the new state of Madhya Pradesh, the region was part of old Madhya Pradesh State, with its capital at Nagpur. Prior to that, the region was part of the Central Provinces and Berar province (CP and Berar) under the British rule. Some areas constituting the Chhattisgarh state were princely states under the British rule, but later on were merged into Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh was under Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741 to 1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947. Raipur gained prominence over the capital Ratanpur with the advent of the British in 1845. In 1905, the Sambalpur district was transferred to Orissa and the estates of Sarguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh. Separation of Chhattisgarh
The present state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 2000. The demand for a separate state was first raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organized movement was never launched. Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes. A demand for separate Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organization for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh was put forward, but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat. The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as the formation of a state-wide political forum, especially the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organized under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major political parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party. The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh was passed in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on August 25, 2000. The Government of India subsequently set November 1, 2000, as the day the state of Madhya Pradesh would...
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