Chemistry Summary

Topics: Ion, Chemical bond, Atom Pages: 3 (403 words) Published: January 19, 2014
METALS  Lose electrons and form positive cations.
NON-METALS  gain electrons and form negative anions.

IONS  Are charges particles.


Atomic Notation and Bohr Diagrams

Lewis Dot Diagram Examples

Lewis Dot Diagrams of an Negative ION (NON-METAL)

Negative ions have 8 valence electrons!
Lewis Dot Diagram of an Ionic Compound

Lewis Dot Diagrams of an Positive ION (METAL)

Positive Ions have no valence electrons!

The Octet Rule

All elements want to be like the noble gases.
All elements want full electron shells.
All elements want 8 valence electrons.
The Octet Rule
Atoms form chemical bonds so that they have an octet of valence electrons, either by gaining, losing, or sharing valence electrons. When atoms bond together, they each want a set of 8 valence electrons. NOMENCLATURE SUMMARY OF RULES!!!!

1. Full name of metal first.
2. Name of non-metal second, BUT change ending to IDE.

I.E. NaCl  Sodium Chloride

1. Full name of the metal, write in the Roman numeral to indicate the valence in brackets. 3. Name of non-metal second, BUT change ending to IDE.

I.E. FeCl3  Iron (III) chloride

Two nonmetals
1. Name each element. (the element furthest to the left on the periodic table is written first). 2. End the last element in –ide
3. Add prefixes to show more than 1 atom. (Omit the prefix mon for the first element).

Mon -1
Di -2
Tri -3
Tetra -4
Penta -5
Hexa -6
Hepta- 7
Octa- 8
Nona- 9
Deca -10

I.E. N2O3 --> dinitrogen trioxide
I.E. CO --> carbon monoxide

1. Full name of the metal.
2. Full name of the polyatomic Ion second.

I.E. NaOH  Sodium hydroxide
I.E. Ca(OH)2  Calcium hydroxide

Classical System

1. The suffix ‘ic’ is used to indicate the ion with the higher charge. a. I.E. FeCl3 (Fe3+ Cl-) Ferric...
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