Chemistry Study Guide

Topics: Atom, Chemistry, Chemical element Pages: 7 (2454 words) Published: June 4, 2013
1. What is Chemistry? The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter. The processes that matter undergoes and the energy changes that accompany these processes. 2. What is the formula for density? If I give you the density of a substance and the volume, you should be able to tell me the mass… Density = Mass/Volume 3. Compare and contrast intensive and extensive properties. Give an example of each. Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present. Such properties include volume, mass, and the amount of energy in a substance. Intensive properties DO NOT depend on the amount matter present. Such properties include the melting point, boiling point, density, and ability to conduct electricity and to transfer energy as heat. 4. How many significant figures do the following numbers have? a. .0023- 2

b. 2004- 4
c. 2.34000- 6
d. 2000- 1
5. What is the importance of significant figures? Significant figures in a measurement consist of all the digits known with certainty, plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain of is estimated. 6. What is the difference between precision and accuracy? Precision refers to the closeness of a set of measurements made in the same way. Accuracy refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct of accepted value of the quantity measured. 7. What is the difference between a homogenous and a heterogeneous mixture? Give an example of each. Homogenous mixtures are uniform in composition; an example would be salt water. Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform throughout; an example would be clay & water. 8. 6.23 L = 6230 mL (be sure you know the metric system and order) 9. Compare and contrast mass and weight. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter, mass is the measurement you make using a balance. Matter can thus be defined as anything that has mass and takes up space. 10. What are the steps of the scientific method? Observing, Formulating Hypotheses, Testing, Theorizing, Publishing Results. 11. What is the difference between a quantitative and a qualitative statement? Write an example of each. Quantitative is numerical information, such as a sample of ore has the mass of 25.7 grams. Qualitative is non-numerical information, such as the fact that the sky is blue. 12. What is the difference between a chemical and a physical change? Give an example of each. A chemical change is a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances, such as carbon and oxygen forming carbon dioxide. A physical change is a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance, such as cutting or melting. 13. What is .0000005869 in scientific notation? 5.869 x 10-7 14. What is an element? Give an example. An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom, an example would be carbon. 15. What is the difference between basic and applied research? Basic research is carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge & applied research is generally carried out to solve a problem. 16. What is the difference between quantity and unit? Give an example. A quantity is something that has magnitude, size, or amount. For example, the quantity represented by a teaspoon is volume. The teaspoon is a unit of measurement, while volume is a quantity. Units of measurements compare what is to be measured with a previously defined size. 17. 11.5 g of Na is how many moles of Na? 0.5 moles

18. What is carbon’s atomic number? How many protons, neutrons, electrons, are in carbon? Carbons atomic number is 6. Protons: 6. Electrons: 6. Neutrons: 6. 19. Who led the discovery of the electron, proton, and neutron? What experiments did each scientist complete for their discovery? John Thomson & Robert A. Millikan led to the discovery. They used a cathode ray to find out the properties of the atoms....
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