chemistry research task 1 prelim

Topics: Petroleum, Oil refinery, Aluminium Pages: 14 (3594 words) Published: May 25, 2014


Year 11 chemistry
Preliminary assignment task 1

Crude oil refining using fractional distillation-
How crude oil refining works-
One of the many industrial separation processes is fractional distillation. It is used to separates many mixtures such as crude oils. Crude oils originate from deep below the earth’s surface, the lithosphere. It happens when animals decay under layers of sand and mud over a long period of time. The following elements and compounds make up crude oils: 84% carbon,14% hydrogen, 1 to 3% sulfur as hydrogen sulfide, sulfides, disulfides, elemental sulfur, less than 1% nitrogen, less than 1% oxygen found in organic compounds such as carbon dioxide, phenols, ketones, carboxylic acids, less than 1% metals and less than 1% salt Factional distillation is able to separate crude oils because they have different boiling and condensation points. Which means when the crude oil is boiled at high temperatures all of the different substances run off into the separation chambers. The process of fractional distillation actually works to separate the mixture by: 1. Heat the mixture to a high temperature. Heating is usually done with high pressure steam to temperatures of about 600 degrees Celsius. 2. The mixture boils, forming vapour.

3. The vapour enters the bottom of the fractional distillation column that is filled with trays or plates. The trays have many holes or bubble caps (like a loosened cap on a soda bottle) in them to allow the vapour to pass through. 4. The vapour rises in the column.

5. As the vapour rises through the trays in the column, it cools. 6. As the vapour reaches a height where the temperature of the column is equal to that substance's boiling point, it will condense to form a liquid. 7. The trays collect the various liquid fractions.

8. The collected liquid fractions may pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks, or they may go to other areas for further chemical processing.

The products refined from crude oil can be placed into ten main categories- These main products are further refined to create materials more common to everyday life. The ten main products are: Products-

Main use-
Asphalt
Asphalt is commonly used to make roads.
Diesel
Diesel is any fuel that can be used in a diesel engine
Fuel Oil
Fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace to generate heat Gasoline
It is mainly used as fuel in internal combustion engines, like the engines in cars Kerosene
Kerosene is most commonly used as jet fuel and as heating fuel Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Liquefied petroleum gas is a mixture of gases that are most often used in heating appliances, aerosol propellants, and refrigerants Lubricating Oil
The most commonly-known lubricating oil is motor oil, which protects moving parts inside an internal combustion engine Paraffin Wax
Paraffin wax is used in drywall to insulate buildings. It is also an acceptable wax used to make candles for the Jewish Menorah. Bitumen
Bitumen, commonly known as tar, is a thick, black, sticky material Petrochemicals
It is used as a solvent and cleaning agent

The waste products and their environmental Impact:
Waste products-
Environmental impact-
Asphalt
Emissions from asphalt plants, including greenhouse gases, are very low and well-controlled Tar
Global warming and greenhouse gas emissions, disturbance of mined land; impacts on wildlife and air and water quality.  Waxes
When burned it releases toxins such as toluene and benzene into the atmosphere

New developments/improvements in the separation process-
In 1852 a Canadian inventor named Abraham Gesner discovered how to make Kerosene from crude petroleum. Borrowing a page from alcohol distiller’s Gesner used a simple still type system to distil and refine crude petroleum by heating it and separating its various elements. In the early days of the oil industry, the methods for refining...

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