chemistry project

Topics: Ethanol, Yeast, Fermentation Pages: 2 (959 words) Published: October 22, 2014

-457200315912500RATES OF FERMENTATION OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE JUICES -1598295325501000OBJECTIVE
The objective of this project is to study the rates of fermentation of the following fruit or vegetable juices. Apple juice
125412559309000Carrot juice

INTRODUCTION
Fermentation is a slow decomposition of complex organic compound into simpler compounds by the action of enzymes. Enzymes are complex organic compounds, generally proteins. Examples of fermentation are souring of milk curd, bread making wine making, brewing. The word ‘Fermentation’ had been derived from Latin (‘Ferver’ means to ‘boil’). As during fermentation there is lot of frothing of liquid due to the evolution of carbon dioxide, it gives the appearance as if it is boiling. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation takes place in the absence of oxygen (when the electron transport chain is unusable) and becomes the cell’s primary means of ATP (energy) production. Sugars like glucose, sucrose when fermented in presence of yeast cells are converted to ethyl alcohol. During fermentation of starch, starch is first hydrolyzed to maltose by action of enzyme diastase. Diastase is obtained from germinated barley seeds. Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of 4-16°C (40-60°F). This is slow for most kinds of fermentation, but is beneficial for cider as it leads to slower fermentation with less loss of delicate aroma. Apple based juices with cranberry also make fine ciders; and many other fruit purees or flavorings can be used, such as grapes, cherry, raspberry. The cider is ready to drink after a three month fermentation period, though more often it is matured in the vats for up to 2 to 3 years.

History of Fermentation
Since fruits ferment naturally, fermentation precedes human history. Since ancient times, however, humans have been controlling the fermentation process. The earliest evidence of winemaking dates from eight thousand years ago in Georgia, in the Caucasus area....
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