Chemistry Notes and Worksheet: Acids, Bases and Salt

Topics: Ammonia, Acid, Sodium chloride Pages: 10 (1296 words) Published: July 26, 2013
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Chemistry Notes & Worksheet: Acids, Bases & Salt

Name: __________________________________________________ ( ) Class: Secondary 3 Maju/Cemerlang
Date: ______ August 2012

Acids

Definition: Substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.

Strong Acids| Weak Acids|
Chemical Name| Chemical Formula|
Organic acids such as citric acid, ethanoic acid.|
Hydrochloric acid| HCl| |
Sulphuric acid| H2SO4| |
Nitric acid| HNO3| |

Note: The strength of an acid depends on the extent of its ionization in water; strong acids fully ionize in water to produce H+ ions.

Characteristics of Acids
* sour taste
* able to conduct electricity
* corrosive if concentrated
* able to react with metals, carbonate compounds & bases/alkalis* * able to turn blue litmus paper red

Reactions of Acids

1. Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen

2. Acid + Carbonate Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water

3. Acid + Base/Alkali Salt + Water (Neutralisation)

Note: Salts formed always takes the cation (positive ion which is usually a metal) + name of acid. e.g. : Sulphuric acid + SodiumSodium sulphate + Hydrogen

Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate calcium chloride + CO2 + H2O

Practice Questions on Reaction of Acids
Complete the word equation(s) below and write its equivalent balanced chemical equation(s).

1. ___________________ + zinc _________ chloride + ____________________

Chemical equation:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

2. nitric acid + aluminium _______________________ + hydrogen

Chemical equation:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

3. nitric acid + _____________________ magnesium nitrate + __________ + water

Chemical equation:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

4. __________________ + potassium hydroxide _____________ sulphate + water

Chemical equation:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

5. sulphuric acid + ___________ magnesium ________ + carbon dioxide + water

Chemical equation:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Alkalis

Definition: Substances that release hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.

Strong Alkali| Weak Alkali|
Chemical
Name| Chemical
Formula| Chemical
Name| Chemical
Formula|
Sodium hydroxide| NaOH| Ammonia| NH3|
Potassium hydroxide| KOH| Magnesium hydroxide| Mg(OH)2|

Note: The strength of an alkali depends on the extent of its ionization in water; a strong alkali fully ionizes to give off hydroxide ions, weak alkali ionizes partially.

Characteristics of Alkalis
* soapy feeling
* turns red litmus paper blue
* able to conduct electricity
* corrosive if concentrated
* react with acids to form salt & water
* react with ammonium salts to form ammonia, salt & water

Reactions of Alkalis

1. Alkali (a soluble base) + acid salt + water

2. Alkali + ammonium salt salt + ammonia + water

Examples of ammonium salts

Chemical Name| Chemical Formula|
Ammonium chloride| NH4Cl|
Ammonium sulphate| (NH4)2SO4|
Ammonium nitrate| NH4NO3|

Note: Salts formed always takes the cation (positive ion which is usually a metal) + name of acid.

e.g. :...
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