Chemistry

Topics: Air pollution, Smog, United States Environmental Protection Agency Pages: 6 (1597 words) Published: December 5, 2013
CHEMISTRY – SECTION D
Vocabulary

Pollutants
An undesirable contaminant that adversely affects the chemical, physical, or biological characteristic of the environment Primary air pollutants
A contaminant that directly enters the atmosphere; it is not initially formed by reactions of airborne substances Secondary air pollutants

A contaminant generated in the atmosphere by chemical reactions between primary air pollutant and natural components of air Particulate pollutants

Microscopic particle that enters the air from either human activities or natural process

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Reactive carbon-containing substances that readily evaporates into air, such as components of gasoline and organic solvents Criteria pollutants
An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classification for a pollutant commonly found troughout the U.S and detrimental to human health or the environment, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), lead (Pb) , and particulate matter (PM). Hazardous air pollutants

Substances in air that is known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects or adverse environment effects; air toxic Accuracy

Extent to which a measurement represents its corresponding actual values. Precision
How closely repeated measurements cluster around the same calue Smog

Combination of smoke and fog  Smoke + fog = smog
Temperature inversion
An atmospheric condition where a cool air mass is trapped beneth a less dense warm air mass; it most frequently occurs in a valley or over a city Photochemical smog
A potentially hazardous mixture of secondary pollutants formed by solar irradiation of certain primary pollutants in the presence of oxygen Acid precipitation/Acid rain

Fog, sleet, snow, or rain with a pH lower than about 5.6 due to dissolved gases such as SO2, SO3, and NO2 pH scale
Method used as a convenient way to measure and report acidic, basic, or chemical neutral character of a solution; pH is based on a solution´s hydrogen ion (H+ or H3O+) molar concentration

Alkaline

A basic solution containing an excess of hydroxide ions (OH-)

Bases
Ion or compound that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water

Important concepts
Why is air pollution a problem?
Air pollution causes billions of dollars of damage every year  it can corrode building and machines, it can stunt the growth of agricultural crops and weaken livestock. Other reasons is that the pollution cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment Discuss the differences between natural air pollution and human air pollution - Natural sources produce more of almost every major air contaminant than the human sources. The natural occurs over wide regions and is seldom noticed. By contrast, the pollutants from the human are usually generated within localized areas, such as bear smokestacks, exhaust pipes, or lage population centers. Natural air pollution  forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds and natural radioactivity Human air pollution  Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities, Burning Fossil Fuels, Household and Farming Chemicals Classify different types of air pollution


Primary pollutants are those gases or particles that are pumped into the air to make it unclean. They include carbon monoxide from automobile (cars) exhausts and sulfur dioxide from the combustion of coal Secondary pollutants: When pollutants in the air mix up in a chemical reaction, they form an even more dangerous chemical. Photochemical smog is an example of this, and is a secondary pollutant. Criteria pollutants: An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classification for a pollutant commonly found troughout the U.S and detrimental to human health or the environment, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide...
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