(SYNTHESIS REACTION, DECOMPOSITION AND
SINGLE REAPLACEMENT REACTION)
1. To identify the chemical changes
2. To observe the effect of temperature of a chemical reaction.
Theoritical basic :
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, and can often be described by a chemical equation. The substance (or substances) initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products, which usually have properties different from the reactants. Reactions often consist of a sequence of individual sub-steps, the so-called elementary reactions, and the information on the precise course of action is part of the reaction mechanism. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which graphically present the starting materials, end products, and sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions. Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration, and rapid reactions are often described as spontaneous, requiring no input of extra energy other than thermal energy. Non-spontaneous reactions run so slowly that they are considered to require the input of some type of additional energy (such as extra heat, light or electricity) in order to proceed to completion (chemical equilibrium) at human time scales. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations during in chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired product. In biochemistry, a similar series of chemical reactions form metabolic pathways. These reactions are often catalyzed by protein enzymes. These enzymes increase the rates of biochemical reactions, so that metabolic syntheses and decompositions impossible under ordinary conditions may be performed at the temperatures and concentrations present within a cell. The general concept of a chemical reaction has been extended to non-chemical reactions between entities smaller than atoms, including nuclear reactions, radioactive decays, and reactions between elementary particles as described by quantum field theory. Reaction types. There are three basic types and representation of three basic chemical reactions types: synthesis, decomposition and single replacement SYNTHESIS
In a synthesis reaction, two or more simple substances combine to form a more complex substance. These reactions are in the general form: A + B → AB
Two or more reactants yielding one product is another way to identify a synthesis reaction. One example of a synthesis reaction is the combination of iron and sulfur to form iron(II) sulfide:
8Fe + S8 → 8FeS Another example is simple hydrogen gas combined with simple oxygen gas to produce a more complex substance, such as water.
A decomposition reaction is the opposite of a synthesis reaction, where a more complex substance breaks down into its more simple parts. These reactions are in the general form: AB → A + B
One example of a decomposition reaction is the electrolysis of water to make oxygen and hydrogen gas: 2H2O → 2H2 + O2
In a single replacement reaction, a single uncombined element replaces another in a compound; in order words, one element trades places with another element in a compound These reactions come in the general form of: A + BC → AC + B
One example of a single displacement reaction is when magnesium replaces hydrogen in water to make magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas: Mg + 2H2O → Mg(OH)2 + H2
Material and Equipment :
2. Cu wire (Cooper)
3. Mg wire (Magnesium)
4. Bunsen burner
1 spoon of Spatula...
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