Characters as Social Aspects in Oliver Twist
"The Victorians were avowedly, unashamedly, incorrigibly moralists. They . . . engaged in philanthropic enterprises in part to satisfy their own moral needs. And they were moralists in behalf of the poor, whom they sought not only to assist materially but also to elevate morally, spiritually, culturally, and intellectually . . . ." (Himmelfarb 48(8)). Charles Dickens used characterization as the basis of his pursuit of this moral goal in the serialized Oliver Twist. His satyr was meant to draw parallels to the dark side of an era of British progress. One side of progress is wealth, the other side of the same coin is poverty, despair, misery and crime. Dickens allegorized evil in contrast to good through characterization and melodrama. "Most of the moral judgments of the reader are pre-made for him or her. As a result, the reader objectively absorbs the moral lessons Dickens has set forth" (Stoddard). Gregory Stoddard writes: "in Oliver Twist, there is a clear, defined system of criticism and rhetoric marked by sarcasm, and the language of judgment" (Stoddard). The first words of Chapter 2 are an example. In it, he describes the situation that the innocent, Oliver, finds himself. "Here is a clear example of the sarcasm and careful word choice in which lies the authorial social criticism," writes Stoddard. "Consider the choice of words in this passage, 'treachery and deception.' The connotations of these words imply an inherent evil, and consequently, a moral judgment. More subtly, the choice of 'victim' implies that there is an entity that victimizes, and the word 'systematic' strengthens that impression, lending to it an intentionality, and as a result, an evil nature" (Stoddard). Stoddard continues, ". . . when the victimizing entities are systematic in their methods, a conflict of good versus evil results" (Stoddard). Although the overall message was clear, coming on the heels of the of Poor Law of 1834 as the book did, the characters Dickens created for the purpose of making his social commentary ranged from one dimensional to multidimensional caricatures. He used them as a means of presenting the "other" side of wealth-the dark, evil side. To that end, Oliver operates as a catalyst rather than as a hero. His lack of hero status allows us to follow him into the underworld without ever being a participant in it, just as he never desired to be a participant in it. We follow him through Dickens' moral judgments because to actually participate in that world would be too repugnant. We can, therefore, moralize from a distance along with Dickens, even though we've observed the most gruesome of killings and bleak circumstances of his existence. Although he is both innocent and a thief, Oliver does not grow in his role, he merely becomes wealthy in the end. For this reason, the evil actors, Fagin, Nancy and Sikes, are those characters which Dickens makes multidimensional. The victims of wealth are the innocents, yes, but the innocents are also the victims of the more romantic criminals and prostitutes-the other side of the coin. Dickens uses all of these characters to attack both systems, the upper and lower world, mostly, but not always, within the confines of darkness. Darkness resides alike in workhouses, in the underworld, in officers such as the "fat man" Bumble, and in the legal system (Dickens 1-5, 56-62, ). Through the range of characters and their multiplicities, Dickens can address the dualities of the world such as greed and generosity, kindness and cruelty, and innocence and vice. Not only are many of the acts of the multidimensional actors evil and ugly, they are evil and ugly in appearance, particularly Fagin, Sikes, and Monks. Conversely, the novel's good characters, Oliver, Rose, and Mr. Brownlow, are attractive. Characters who play both roles of good and evil, such as Nancy, are described variously along with their roles at any given moment. The...
Cited: Dickens, Charles. (Serialized 1937-39) Oliver Twist. New York NY: Airmont Publishing Co. (1963).
Faulkner, Peter. "The Companion to 'Oliver Twist., '" The Review of English Studies, Vol. 46 No. 181. (1995) : Feb, pp. 111(2).
Himmelfarb, Gertrude. "The age of Philanthropy.," The Wilson Quarterly, Vol. 21. (1997) : Mar 22, pp. 48(8).
Melada, Ivan. "Oliver Twist: Whole Heart and Soul.," Studies in the Novel, vol. 27 No 2. (1995) : Summer 1995, pp. 218(3).
Morton. "Dickens, Oliver Twist.," electronic file at: . (1997) : Aug 19.
Stoddard, Gregg. "Dickens and Victorian Culture.," electronic file at: . (1996) : February 2.
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