One of the most famous names in science and in the economy today, is Charles Darwin. Darwin is best known for his contributions in science; his famous theory of evolution. He also contributed to the market and command economy with his belief, "survival of the fittest."
Charles Darwin's contribution to science has been a very controversial one. He stated that each generation will improve adaptively over the preceding generations, and this gradual and continuous process is the source of the evolution of species. Natural selection is only part of Darwin's theory. He also introduced the concept that all related organisms are descended from common ancestors. His theory was first announced in 1858 in a paper. Darwin's complete theory was published in 1859, in On the Origin of Species. This book is often referred to as "the book that shook the world. The Origin sold out on the first day of publication and subsequently went through six editions.
Charles Darwin also contributed to the Market economy with his belief "survival of the fittest." In a free enterprise system, it is believed that the best will survive while the less efficient will collapse if the market is allowed to work without government interference. In a market economy, since the government has very little control of the businesses, the companies must work their hardest and come out with good products that will outsell the ones of their competition.
Social Darwinism basically means that the strong will control the weak. Social Darwinism comes from the laws of natural selection as Darwin had stated. According to his theory, which was very popular in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries, the weak were diminished, while the strong grew in power and in cultural influence over the weak. In command economies, this is basically what is happening. There is very little freedom, and the strong (mostly government) will control the weak as in what to do, produce, etc.
As you can see, Charles Darwin has a lot of contributions to science, market, and command economies. He was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, on February 12, 1809, and died in Down, Kent, on April 19, 1882. He will be greatly remembered as one of the greatest British scientist to ever live.